Gene Ontology (GO)

The Gene Ontology (GO) provides a framework and set of concepts for describing the functions of gene products from all organisms.

Open in the Ontology Lookup Service (OLS)


acetate ester transport [GO_1901374]

The directed movement of an acetate ester into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

acetylcholine secretion [GO_0061526]

The regulated release of acetylcholine by a cell.

acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0014055]

The regulated release of acetylcholine by a cell. The acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter that acts in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS).

acetylcholine transport [GO_0015870]

The directed movement of acetylcholine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Acetylcholine is an acetic acid ester of the organic base choline and functions as a neurotransmitter, released at the synapses of parasympathetic nerves and at neuromuscular junctions.

acid secretion [GO_0046717]

The controlled release of acid by a cell or a tissue.

acid-amino acid ligase activity [GO_0016881]

Catalysis of the ligation of an acid to an amino acid via a carbon-nitrogen bond, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate.

acidic amino acid transport [GO_0015800]

The directed movement of acidic amino acids, amino acids with a pH below 7, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

actin cytoskeleton [GO_0015629]

The part of the cytoskeleton (the internal framework of a cell) composed of actin and associated proteins. Includes actin cytoskeleton-associated complexes.

actin cytoskeleton organization [GO_0030036]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures comprising actin filaments and their associated proteins.

actin filament-based process [GO_0030029]

Any cellular process that depends upon or alters the actin cytoskeleton, that part of the cytoskeleton comprising actin filaments and their associated proteins.

action potential [GO_0001508]

A process in which membrane potential cycles through a depolarizing spike, triggered in response to depolarization above some threshold, followed by repolarization. This cycle is driven by the flow of ions through various voltage gated channels with different thresholds and ion specificities. Action potentials typically propagate across excitable membranes. This class covers both action potentials that propagate and those that fail to do so.

actomyosin [GO_0042641]

Any complex of actin, myosin, and accessory proteins.

actomyosin structure organization [GO_0031032]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures containing both actin and myosin or paramyosin. The myosin may be organized into filaments. Note that this term is a child of ‘actin cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis ; GO:0030036’ because the actin cytoskeleton is defined as actin filaments and associated proteins.

acyl binding [GO_0000035]

Binding to an acyl group, any group formally derived by removal of the hydroxyl group from the acid function of a carboxylic acid.

adipose tissue development [GO_0060612]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of adipose tissue over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Adipose tissue is specialized tissue that is used to store fat.

adult behavior [GO_0030534]

Behavior in a fully developed and mature organism. See also the biological process term ‘behavior ; GO:0007610’.

adult feeding behavior [GO_0008343]

Feeding behavior in a fully developed and mature organism. See also the biological process term ‘feeding behavior ; GO:0007631’.

adult locomotory behavior [GO_0008344]

Locomotory behavior in a fully developed and mature organism. See also the biological process term ‘locomotory behavior ; GO:0007626’.

adult walking behavior [GO_0007628]

The behavior of an adult relating to the progression of that organism along the ground by the process of lifting and setting down each leg.

aggressive behavior [GO_0002118]

A behavioral interaction between organisms in which one organism has the intention of inflicting physical damage on another individual.

aging [GO_0007568]

A developmental process that is a deterioration and loss of function over time. Aging includes loss of functions such as resistance to disease, homeostasis, and fertility, as well as wear and tear. Aging includes cellular senescence, but is more inclusive. May precede death and may succeed developmental maturation (GO:0021700).

alkaloid biosynthetic process [GO_0009821]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of alkaloids, nitrogen-containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as nonprotein amino acids, amines, peptides, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones, or primary metabolite (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).

alkaloid metabolic process [GO_0009820]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving alkaloids, nitrogen containing natural products which are not otherwise classified as peptides, nonprotein amino acids, amines, cyanogenic glycosides, glucosinolates, cofactors, phytohormones or primary metabolites (such as purine or pyrimidine bases).

alpha-amino acid biosynthetic process [GO_1901607]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of an alpha-amino acid.

alpha-amino acid metabolic process [GO_1901605]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving an alpha-amino acid.

ameboidal-type cell migration [GO_0001667]

Cell migration that is accomplished by extension and retraction of a pseudopodium. Note that this term refers to a mode of migration rather than to any particular cell type.

amide binding [GO_0033218]

Binding to an amide, any derivative of an oxoacid in which an acidic hydroxy group has been replaced by an amino or substituted amino group.

amide biosynthetic process [GO_0043604]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of an amide, any derivative of an oxoacid in which an acidic hydroxy group has been replaced by an amino or substituted amino group.

amide transport [GO_0042886]

The directed movement of an amide, any compound containing one, two, or three acyl groups attached to a nitrogen atom, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

amine binding [GO_0043176]

Binding to an amine, a weakly basic organic compound that contains an amino or a substituted amino group.

amine biosynthetic process [GO_0009309]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.

amine metabolic process [GO_0009308]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.

amine transport [GO_0015837]

The directed movement of amines, including polyamines, organic compounds containing one or more amino groups, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

amino acid binding [GO_0016597]

Binding to an amino acid, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.

amino acid transport [GO_0006865]

The directed movement of amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

aminoglycan biosynthetic process [GO_0006023]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of aminoglycans, any polymer containing amino groups that consists of more than about 10 monosaccharide residues joined to each other by glycosidic linkages.

aminoglycan metabolic process [GO_0006022]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving aminoglycans, any polymer containing amino groups that consists of more than about 10 monosaccharide residues joined to each other by glycosidic linkages.

ammonium ion binding [GO_0070405]

Binding to ammonium ions (NH4+).

ammonium ion metabolic process [GO_0097164]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving the ammonium ion.

ammonium transport [GO_0015696]

The directed movement of ammonium into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Ammonium is the cation NH4+ which is formed from N2 by root-nodule bacteria in leguminous plants and is an excretory product in ammonotelic animals.

anatomical structure development [GO_0048856]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an anatomical structure from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the structure and ends with the mature structure, whatever form that may be including its natural destruction. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome.

anatomical structure formation involved in morphogenesis [GO_0048646]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of an anatomical structure from unspecified parts. This process begins with the specific processes that contribute to the appearance of the discrete structure and ends when the structural rudiment is recognizable. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome. Note that, for example, the formation of a pseudopod in an amoeba would not be considered formation involved in morphogenesis because it would not be thought of as the formation of an anatomical structure that was part of the shaping of the amoeba during its development. The formation of an axon from a neuron would be considered the formation of an anatomical structure involved in morphogenesis because it contributes to the creation of the form of the neuron in a developmental sense.

anatomical structure homeostasis [GO_0060249]

A homeostatic process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state within a defined anatomical structure of an organism, including control of cellular proliferation and death and control of metabolic function. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome.

anatomical structure morphogenesis [GO_0009653]

The process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Morphogenesis pertains to the creation of form.

anchoring junction [GO_0070161]

A cell junction that mechanically attaches a cell (and its cytoskeleton) to neighboring cells or to the extracellular matrix.

androgen secretion [GO_0035935]

The regulated release of an androgen into the circulatory system. Androgens are steroid hormones that stimulate or control the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates.

anesthesia-resistant memory [GO_0007615]

The memory process that results in the formation of consolidated memory resistant to disruption of the patterned activity of the brain, without requiring protein synthesis.

angioblast cell differentiation [GO_0035779]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of an angioblast cell. Angioblasts are one of the two products formed from hemangioblast cells (the other being pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells).

angiogenesis [GO_0001525]

Blood vessel formation when new vessels emerge from the proliferation of pre-existing blood vessels.

angiogenesis involved in coronary vascular morphogenesis [GO_0060978]

Blood vessel formation in the heart when new vessels emerge from the proliferation of pre-existing blood vessels.

animal organ development [GO_0048513]

Development of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Development pertains to the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a structure over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

animal organ formation [GO_0048645]

The process pertaining to the initial formation of an animal organ from unspecified parts. The process begins with the specific processes that contribute to the appearance of the discrete structure, such as inductive events, and ends when the structural rudiment of the organ is recognizable, such as a condensation of mesenchymal cells into the organ rudiment. Organs are a natural part or structure in an animal or a plant, capable of performing some special action (termed its function), which is essential to the life or well-being of the whole. The heart and lungs are organs of animals, and the petal and leaf are organs of plants. In animals the organs are generally made up of several tissues, one of which usually predominates, and determines the principal function of the organ.

animal organ morphogenesis [GO_0009887]

Morphogenesis of an animal organ. An organ is defined as a tissue or set of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis is the process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

anion binding [GO_0043168]

Binding to an anion, a charged atom or group of atoms with a net negative charge.

anion transport [GO_0006820]

The directed movement of anions, atoms or small molecules with a net negative charge, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

anterior/posterior pattern specification [GO_0009952]

The regionalization process in which specific areas of cell differentiation are determined along the anterior-posterior axis. The anterior-posterior axis is defined by a line that runs from the head or mouth of an organism to the tail or opposite end of the organism.

anterograde trans-synaptic signaling [GO_0098916]

Cell-cell signaling from pre to post-synapse, across the synaptic cleft.

aorta development [GO_0035904]

The progression of the aorta over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. An aorta is an artery that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body.

aorta morphogenesis [GO_0035909]

The process in which the anatomical structures of an aorta are generated and organized. An aorta is an artery that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body.

aorta smooth muscle tissue morphogenesis [GO_0060414]

The process in which the structure of the smooth muscle tissue surrounding the aorta is generated and organized. An aorta is an artery that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body.

aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO_0035887]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a smooth muscle cell surrounding the aorta.

apoptotic chromosome condensation [GO_0030263]

The compaction of chromatin during apoptosis.

apoptotic nuclear changes [GO_0030262]

Alterations undergone by nuclei at the molecular and morphological level as part of the execution phase of apoptosis.

apoptotic process [GO_0006915]

A programmed cell death process which begins when a cell receives an internal (e.g. DNA damage) or external signal (e.g. an extracellular death ligand), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathway phase) which trigger an execution phase. The execution phase is the last step of an apoptotic process, and is typically characterized by rounding-up of the cell, retraction of pseudopodes, reduction of cellular volume (pyknosis), chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis), plasma membrane blebbing and fragmentation of the cell into apoptotic bodies. When the execution phase is completed, the cell has died.

apoptotic process involved in blood vessel morphogenesis [GO_1902262]

Any apoptotic process that is involved in blood vessel morphogenesis.

apoptotic process involved in development [GO_1902742]

Any apoptotic process that is involved in anatomical structure development.

apoptotic process involved in endocardial cushion morphogenesis [GO_0003277]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the shaping of an endocardial cushion. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

apoptotic process involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0003278]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

apoptotic process involved in morphogenesis [GO_0060561]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the shaping of an anatomical structure.

apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_0003275]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the shaping of the outflow tract. The outflow tract is the portion of the heart through which blood flows into the arteries.

apoptotic process involved in tube lumen cavitation [GO_0060609]

Any apoptotic process that contributes to the hollowing out of an epithelial rod or cord to form the central hole in a tube.

apoptotic signaling pathway [GO_0097190]

A series of molecular signals which triggers the apoptotic death of a cell. The pathway starts with reception of a signal, and ends when the execution phase of apoptosis is triggered. This term can be used to annotate gene products involved in apoptotic events happening downstream of the cross-talk point between the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. The cross-talk starts when caspase-8 cleaves Bid and truncated Bid interacts with mitochondria. From this point on it is not possible to distinguish between extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

appendage development [GO_0048736]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an appendage over time, from its formation to the mature structure. An appendage is an organ or part that is attached to the trunk of an organism, such as a limb or a branch.

appendage morphogenesis [GO_0035107]

The process in which the anatomical structures of appendages are generated and organized. An appendage is an organ or part that is attached to the trunk of an organism, such as a limb or a branch.

aromatic compound biosynthetic process [GO_0019438]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of aromatic compounds, any substance containing an aromatic carbon ring.

arterial endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0060842]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized endothelial cell acquires specialized features of an arterial endothelial cell, a thin flattened cell that lines the inside surfaces of arteries.

artery development [GO_0060840]

The progression of the artery over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. An artery is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to a capillary bed.

artery morphogenesis [GO_0048844]

The process in which the anatomical structures of arterial blood vessels are generated and organized. Arteries are blood vessels that transport blood from the heart to the body and its organs.

associative learning [GO_0008306]

Learning by associating a stimulus (the cause) with a particular outcome (the effect).

atrial cardiac muscle tissue development [GO_0003228]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of cardiac muscle of the atrium over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

atrial cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis [GO_0055009]

The process in which the anatomical structure of cardiac atrium muscle is generated and organized.

atrial septum development [GO_0003283]

The progression of the atrial septum over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure.

atrial septum morphogenesis [GO_0060413]

The developmental process in which atrial septum is generated and organized. The atrial septum separates the upper chambers (the atria) of the heart from one another.

atrioventricular node cell development [GO_0060928]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an atrioventricular (AV) node cell over time, from its formation to the mature state.

atrioventricular node cell differentiation [GO_0060922]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an atrioventricular (AV) node cell. AV node cells are pacemaker cells that are found in the atrioventricular node.

atrioventricular node development [GO_0003162]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the atrioventricular (AV) node over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The AV node is part of the cardiac conduction system that controls the timing of ventricle contraction by receiving electrical signals from the sinoatrial (SA) node and relaying them to the His-Purkinje system.

autonomic nervous system development [GO_0048483]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the autonomic nervous system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The autonomic nervous system is composed of neurons that are not under conscious control, and is comprised of two antagonistic components, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. The autonomic nervous system regulates key functions including the activity of the cardiac (heart) muscle, smooth muscles (e.g. of the gut), and glands.

AV node cell action potential [GO_0086016]

An action potential that occurs in an atrioventricular node cardiac muscle cell.

AV node cell to bundle of His cell communication [GO_0086067]

The process that mediates interactions between an AV node cell and its surroundings that contributes to the process of the AV node cell communicating with a bundle of His cell in cardiac conduction. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

AV node cell to bundle of His cell signaling [GO_0086027]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from an AV node cardiac muscle cell to a bundle of His cardiomyocyte.

axial mesoderm development [GO_0048318]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the axial mesoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The axial mesoderm includes the prechordal mesoderm and the chordamesoderm. It gives rise to the prechordal plate and to the notochord.

axial mesoderm formation [GO_0048320]

The process that gives rise to the axial mesoderm. This process pertains to the initial formation of the structure from unspecified parts.

axial mesoderm morphogenesis [GO_0048319]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the axial mesoderm are generated and organized.

axis specification [GO_0009798]

The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of a pattern along a line or around a point.

axo-dendritic protein transport [GO_0099640]

The directed movement of proteins along microtubules in neuron projections.

axo-dendritic transport [GO_0008088]

The directed movement of organelles or molecules along microtubules in neuron projections.

axon [GO_0030424]

The long process of a neuron that conducts nerve impulses, usually away from the cell body to the terminals and varicosities, which are sites of storage and release of neurotransmitter.

axon cytoplasm [GO_1904115]

Any cytoplasm that is part of a axon.

axonal dopamine secretion [GO_0099124]

The regulated release of dopamine from an axon.

axonemal microtubule [GO_0005879]

A microtubule in the axoneme of a eukaryotic cilium or flagellum; an axoneme contains nine modified doublet microtubules, which may or may not surround a pair of single microtubules.

axonemal microtubule depolymerization [GO_0060404]

The removal of tubulin heterodimers from one or both ends of an axonemal microtubule. An axonemal microtubule is a microtubule in the axoneme of a cilium or flagellum; an axoneme contains nine modified doublet microtubules surrounding a pair of single microtubules.

axoneme [GO_0005930]

The bundle of microtubules and associated proteins that forms the core of cilia (also called flagella) in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for their movements. Note that cilia and eukaryotic flagella are deemed to be equivalent. In diplomonad species, such as Giardia, the axoneme may extend intracellularly up to 5um away from the plane of the plasma membrane.

axoneme assembly [GO_0035082]

The assembly and organization of an axoneme, the bundle of microtubules and associated proteins that forms the core of cilia (also called flagella) in eukaryotic cells and is responsible for their movements. Note that cilia and eukaryotic flagella are deemed to be equivalent.

azole transmembrane transport [GO_0045117]

The directed movement of azoles, heterocyclic compounds found in many biologically important substances, across a lipid bilayer, across a membrane.

backward locomotion [GO_0043057]

Posterior movement of an organism, e.g. following the direction of the tail of an animal.

banded collagen fibril [GO_0098643]

A supramolecular assembly of fibrillar collagen complexes in the form of a long fiber (fibril) with transverse striations (bands).

basement membrane [GO_0005604]

A collagen-containing extracellular matrix consisting of a thin layer of dense material found in various animal tissues interposed between the cells and the adjacent connective tissue. It consists of the basal lamina plus an associated layer of reticulin fibers. Note that this term has no relationship to ‘membrane ; GO:0016020’ because the basement membrane is not a lipid bilayer.

basement membrane assembly [GO_0070831]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a basement membrane, a part of the extracellular region that consists of a thin layer of dense material found in various animal tissues interposed between the cells and the adjacent connective tissue. Note that this term has no relationship to ‘membrane assembly ; GO:0071709’ because the basement membrane is not a lipid bilayer.

basement membrane collagen trimer [GO_0098651]

Any collagen timer that is part of a basement membrane.

basement membrane disassembly [GO_0034769]

The controlled breakdown of the basement membrane in the context of a normal process such as imaginal disc eversion. Note that this term has no relationship to ‘membrane disassembly ; GO:0030397’ because the basement membrane is not a lipid bilayer.

basement membrane organization [GO_0071711]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the basement membrane. Note that this term has no relationship to ‘membrane organization ; GO:0061024’ because the basement membrane is not a lipid bilayer.

behavior [GO_0007610]

The internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of animals (individuals or groups) to internal or external stimuli, via a mechanism that involves nervous system activity. 1. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation reviews. 2. While a broader definition of behavior encompassing plants and single cell organisms would be justified on the basis of some usage (see PMID:20160973 for discussion), GO uses a tight definition that limits behavior to animals and to responses involving the nervous system, excluding plant responses that GO classifies under development, and responses of unicellular organisms that has general classifications for covering the responses of cells in multicellular organisms (e.g. cell chemotaxis).

behavioral response to nutrient [GO_0051780]

Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of a nutrient stimulus.

behavioral response to pain [GO_0048266]

Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of a pain stimulus. Pain stimuli cause activation of nociceptors, peripheral receptors for pain, include receptors which are sensitive to painful mechanical stimuli, extreme heat or cold, and chemical stimuli.

behavioral response to starvation [GO_0042595]

Any process that results in a change in the behavior of an organism as a result of deprivation of nourishment.

binding [GO_0005488]

The selective, non-covalent, often stoichiometric, interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct, manual gene product annotation. Please choose a more specific child term, or request a new one if no suitable term is available. For ligands that bind to signal transducing receptors, consider the molecular function term ‘receptor binding ; GO:0005102’ and its children.

biological adhesion [GO_0022610]

The attachment of a cell or organism to a substrate, another cell, or other organism. Biological adhesion includes intracellular attachment between membrane regions.

biological phase [GO_0044848]

A distinct period or stage in a biological process or cycle. Note that phases are is_a disjoint from other biological processes. happens_during relationships can operate between phases and other biological processes e.g. DNA replication happens_during S phase.

biological process involved in interspecies interaction between organisms [GO_0044419]

Any process evolved to enable an interaction with an organism of a different species.

biological regulation [GO_0065007]

Any process that modulates a measurable attribute of any biological process, quality or function.

biological_process [GO_0008150]

A biological process represents a specific objective that the organism is genetically programmed to achieve. Biological processes are often described by their outcome or ending state, e.g., the biological process of cell division results in the creation of two daughter cells (a divided cell) from a single parent cell. A biological process is accomplished by a particular set of molecular functions carried out by specific gene products (or macromolecular complexes), often in a highly regulated manner and in a particular temporal sequence. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the biological process ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose biological process is unknown. Note that when this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the biological process of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ND, no data, is used to indicate this. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the biological process ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose biological process is unknown. When this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the biological process of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ‘no data’ (ND), is used to indicate this.

biosynthetic process [GO_0009058]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of substances; typically the energy-requiring part of metabolism in which simpler substances are transformed into more complex ones.

bleb [GO_0032059]

A cell extension caused by localized decoupling of the cytoskeleton from the plasma membrane and characterized by rapid formation, rounded shape, and scarcity of organelles within the protrusion. Blebs are formed during apoptosis and other cellular processes, including cell locomotion, cell division, and as a result of physical or chemical stresses.

bleb assembly [GO_0032060]

The assembly of a bleb, a cell extension caused by localized decoupling of the cytoskeleton from the plasma membrane and characterized by rapid formation, rounded shape, and scarcity of organelles within the protrusion. Plasma membrane blebbing occurs during apoptosis and other cellular processes, including cell locomotion, cell division, and as a result of physical or chemical stresses.

blood circulation [GO_0008015]

The flow of blood through the body of an animal, enabling the transport of nutrients to the tissues and the removal of waste products.

blood vessel development [GO_0001568]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a blood vessel over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.

blood vessel endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0060837]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a blood vessel endothelial cell, a thin flattened cell that lines the inside surfaces of blood vessels.

blood vessel morphogenesis [GO_0048514]

The process in which the anatomical structures of blood vessels are generated and organized. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.

body fluid secretion [GO_0007589]

The controlled release of a fluid by a cell or tissue in an animal.

body morphogenesis [GO_0010171]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the soma are generated and organized.

bone cell development [GO_0098751]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a bone cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. Not to be used for manual annotation. Please choose a more specific cell development term or if not possible, bone or bone tissue development.

bone development [GO_0060348]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of bone over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Bone is the hard skeletal connective tissue consisting of both mineral and cellular components.

bone growth [GO_0098868]

The increase in size or mass of a bone that contributes to the shaping of that bone.

bone marrow development [GO_0048539]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the bone marrow over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

bone morphogenesis [GO_0060349]

The process in which bones are generated and organized.

bounding membrane of organelle [GO_0098588]

The lipid bilayer that forms the outer-most layer of an organelle. Examples include the outer membranes of double membrane bound organelles such as mitochondria as well as the bounding membranes of single-membrane bound organelles such as lysosomes.

brain development [GO_0007420]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the brain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Brain development begins with patterning events in the neural tube and ends with the mature structure that is the center of thought and emotion. The brain is responsible for the coordination and control of bodily activities and the interpretation of information from the senses (sight, hearing, smell, etc.).

brain morphogenesis [GO_0048854]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the brain are generated and organized. The brain is one of the two components of the central nervous system and is the center of thought and emotion. It is responsible for the coordination and control of bodily activities and the interpretation of information from the senses (sight, hearing, smell, etc.).

brainstem development [GO_0003360]

The progression of the brainstem from its formation to the mature structure. The brainstem is the part of the brain that connects the brain with the spinal cord.

branching involved in blood vessel morphogenesis [GO_0001569]

The process of coordinated growth and sprouting of blood vessels giving rise to the organized vascular system.

branching morphogenesis of a nerve [GO_0048755]

The process in which the anatomical structures of branches in a nerve are generated and organized. This term refers to an anatomical structure (nerve) not a cell (neuron).

branching morphogenesis of an epithelial tube [GO_0048754]

The process in which the anatomical structures of branches in an epithelial tube are generated and organized. A tube is a long hollow cylinder.

cadherin binding [GO_0045296]

Binding to cadherin, a type I membrane protein involved in cell adhesion.

camera-type eye development [GO_0043010]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the camera-type eye over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The camera-type eye is an organ of sight that receives light through an aperture and focuses it through a lens, projecting it on a photoreceptor field.

camera-type eye morphogenesis [GO_0048593]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the eye are generated and organized. The camera-type eye is an organ of sight that receives light through an aperture and focuses it through a lens, projecting it on a photoreceptor field.

camera-type eye photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0060219]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a photoreceptor cell in a camera-type eye.

carbohydrate binding [GO_0030246]

Binding to a carbohydrate, which includes monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides as well as substances derived from monosaccharides by reduction of the carbonyl group (alditols), by oxidation of one or more hydroxy groups to afford the corresponding aldehydes, ketones, or carboxylic acids, or by replacement of one or more hydroxy group(s) by a hydrogen atom. Cyclitols are generally not regarded as carbohydrates.

carbohydrate biosynthetic process [GO_0016051]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.

carbohydrate derivative binding [GO_0097367]

Binding to a carbohydrate derivative.

carbohydrate derivative biosynthetic process [GO_1901137]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carbohydrate derivative.

carbohydrate derivative metabolic process [GO_1901135]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrate derivative.

carbohydrate derivative transport [GO_1901264]

The directed movement of a carbohydrate derivative into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

carbohydrate metabolic process [GO_0005975]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrates, any of a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y. Includes the formation of carbohydrate derivatives by the addition of a carbohydrate residue to another molecule.

carbohydrate transport [GO_0008643]

The directed movement of carbohydrate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Carbohydrates are a group of organic compounds based of the general formula Cx(H2O)y.

carboxylic acid binding [GO_0031406]

Binding to a carboxylic acid, an organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).

carboxylic acid biosynthetic process [GO_0046394]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (-COOH) groups.

carboxylic acid metabolic process [GO_0019752]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving carboxylic acids, any organic acid containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).

carboxylic acid transport [GO_0046942]

The directed movement of carboxylic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Carboxylic acids are organic acids containing one or more carboxyl (COOH) groups or anions (COO-).

cardiac atrium development [GO_0003230]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac atrium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A cardiac atrium receives blood from a vein and pumps it to a cardiac ventricle.

cardiac atrium formation [GO_0003210]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a cardiac atrium from unspecified parts. A cardiac atrium receives blood from a vein and pumps it to a cardiac ventricle.

cardiac atrium morphogenesis [GO_0003209]

The process in which the cardiac atrium is generated and organized. A cardiac atrium receives blood from a vein and pumps it to a cardiac ventricle.

cardiac blood vessel endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0060946]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a blood vessel endothelial cell of the heart. Blood vessel endothelial cells are thin flattened cells that line the inside surfaces of blood vessels.

cardiac cell development [GO_0055006]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac cell over time, from its formation to the mature state. A cardiac cell is a cell that will form part of the cardiac organ of an individual.

cardiac chamber development [GO_0003205]

The progression of a cardiac chamber over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A cardiac chamber is an enclosed cavity within the heart.

cardiac chamber formation [GO_0003207]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a cardiac chamber from unspecified parts. A cardiac chamber is an enclosed cavity within the heart.

cardiac chamber morphogenesis [GO_0003206]

The process in which a cardiac chamber is generated and organized. A cardiac chamber is an enclosed cavity within the heart.

cardiac conduction [GO_0061337]

Transfer of an organized electrical impulse across the heart to coordinate the contraction of cardiac muscles. The process begins with generation of an action potential (in the sinoatrial node (SA) in humans) and ends with a change in the rate, frequency, or extent of the contraction of the heart muscles.

cardiac conduction system development [GO_0003161]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cardiac conduction system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cardiac conduction system consists of specialized cardiomyocytes that regulate the frequency of heart beat.

cardiac endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0003348]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardiac endothelial cell.

cardiac fibroblast cell development [GO_0060936]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac fibroblast over time, from its formation to the mature state. A cardiac fibroblast is a connective tissue cell of the heart which secretes an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

cardiac fibroblast cell differentiation [GO_0060935]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardiac fibroblast. A cardiac fibroblast is a connective tissue cell in the heart which secretes an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

cardiac glial cell development [GO_0060952]

The process aimed at the progression of a cardiac glial cell over time, from its formation to the fully functional mature cell.

cardiac glial cell differentiation [GO_0060950]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a glial cell of the heart.

cardiac left atrium formation [GO_0003216]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a left cardiac atrium from unspecified parts.

cardiac left atrium morphogenesis [GO_0003212]

The process in which the left cardiac atrium is generated and organized.

cardiac left ventricle formation [GO_0003218]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a left cardiac ventricle from unspecified parts.

cardiac left ventricle morphogenesis [GO_0003214]

The process in which the left cardiac ventricle is generated and organized.

cardiac muscle adaptation [GO_0014887]

The process in which cardiac muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors.

cardiac muscle cell action potential [GO_0086001]

An action potential that occurs in a cardiac muscle cell.

cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_0010659]

A form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases, whose actions dismantle a cardiac muscle cell and result in its death. Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction.

cardiac muscle cell development [GO_0055013]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac muscle cell over time, from its formation to the mature state.

cardiac muscle cell differentiation [GO_0055007]

The process in which a cardiac muscle precursor cell acquires specialized features of a cardiac muscle cell. Cardiac muscle cells are striated muscle cells that are responsible for heart contraction.

cardiac muscle cell myoblast differentiation [GO_0060379]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a cardiac myoblast. A cardiac myoblast is a precursor cell that has been committed to a cardiac muscle cell fate but retains the ability to divide and proliferate throughout life.

cardiac muscle cell proliferation [GO_0060038]

The expansion of a cardiac muscle cell population by cell division.

cardiac muscle contraction [GO_0060048]

Muscle contraction of cardiac muscle tissue.

cardiac muscle hypertrophy [GO_0003300]

The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart muscle due to an increase in size of cardiac muscle cells without cell division.

cardiac muscle myoblast proliferation [GO_0110021]

The multiplication or reproduction of cardiac muscle myoblasts, resulting in the expansion of a cardiac muscle myoblast cell population. A cardiac myoblast is a precursor cell that has been committed to a cardiac muscle cell fate but retains the ability to divide and proliferate throughout life.

cardiac muscle tissue development [GO_0048738]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of cardiac muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

cardiac muscle tissue growth [GO_0055017]

The increase in size or mass of a cardiac muscle, where the increase in size or mass has the specific outcome of the progression of the organism over time from one condition to another.

cardiac muscle tissue growth involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0003245]

The developmental growth of cardiac muscle tissue that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis [GO_0055008]

The process in which the anatomical structures of cardiac muscle tissue are generated and organized.

cardiac myofibril [GO_0097512]

A cardiac myofibril is a myofibril specific to cardiac muscle cells.

cardiac myofibril assembly [GO_0055003]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cardiac myofibril over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A cardiac myofibril is a myofibril specific to cardiac muscle cells.

cardiac neural crest cell development involved in heart development [GO_0061308]

The process aimed at the progression of a cardiac neural crest cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to its specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell that contributes to the development of the heart.

cardiac neural crest cell development involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_0061309]

The process aimed at the progression of a cardiac neural crest cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to its specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell that contributes to the shaping of the outflow tract.

cardiac neural crest cell differentiation involved in heart development [GO_0061307]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a cardiac neural crest cell that will migrate to the heart and contribute to its development. Cardiac neural crest cells are specialized cells that migrate toward the heart from the third, fourth and sixth pharyngeal arches.

cardiac neuron development [GO_0060959]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac neuron over time, from its formation to the mature state.

cardiac neuron differentiation [GO_0060945]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron of the heart.

cardiac pacemaker cell development [GO_0060926]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a pacemaker cell over time, from its formation to the mature state. Pacemaker cells are specialized cardiomyocytes that are responsible for regulating the timing of heart contractions.

cardiac pacemaker cell differentiation [GO_0060920]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a pacemaker cell. Pacemaker cells are specialized cardiomyocytes that are responsible for regulating the timing of heart contractions.

cardiac right atrium formation [GO_0003217]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a cardiac right atrium from unspecified parts.

cardiac right atrium morphogenesis [GO_0003213]

The process in which the right cardiac atrium is generated and organized.

cardiac right ventricle formation [GO_0003219]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a right cardiac ventricle from unspecified parts.

cardiac right ventricle morphogenesis [GO_0003215]

The process in which the right cardiac ventricle is generated and organized.

cardiac septum cell differentiation [GO_0003292]

The process in which an endocardial cushion cell becomes a cell of a cardiac septum.

cardiac septum development [GO_0003279]

The progression of a cardiac septum over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure.

cardiac septum morphogenesis [GO_0060411]

The process in which the anatomical structure of a cardiac septum is generated and organized. A cardiac septum is a partition that separates parts of the heart.

cardiac skeleton development [GO_0003204]

The progression of the cardiac skeleton over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cardiac skeleton is a specialized extracellular matrix that separates the atria from the ventricles and provides physical support for the heart.

cardiac ventricle development [GO_0003231]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cardiac ventricle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A cardiac ventricle receives blood from a cardiac atrium and pumps it out of the heart.

cardiac ventricle formation [GO_0003211]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a cardiac ventricle from unspecified parts. A cardiac ventricle receives blood from a cardiac atrium and pumps it out of the heart.

cardiac ventricle morphogenesis [GO_0003208]

The process in which the cardiac ventricle is generated and organized. A cardiac ventricle receives blood from a cardiac atrium and pumps it out of the heart.

cardioblast differentiation [GO_0010002]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.

cardiocyte differentiation [GO_0035051]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cell that will form part of the cardiac organ of an individual.

cardiogenic plate morphogenesis [GO_0003142]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the cardiogenic plate are generated and organized. The cardiogenic plate is the first recognizable structure derived from the heart field.

cartilage development [GO_0051216]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cartilage element over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cartilage elements are skeletal elements that consist of connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulfate.

cartilage development involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0060351]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cartilage that will provide a scaffold for mineralization of endochondral bones.

cartilage morphogenesis [GO_0060536]

The process in which the anatomical structures of cartilage are generated and organized.

catabolic process [GO_0009056]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances, including the breakdown of carbon compounds with the liberation of energy for use by the cell or organism.

catalytic activity [GO_0003824]

Catalysis of a biochemical reaction at physiological temperatures. In biologically catalyzed reactions, the reactants are known as substrates, and the catalysts are naturally occurring macromolecular substances known as enzymes. Enzymes possess specific binding sites for substrates, and are usually composed wholly or largely of protein, but RNA that has catalytic activity (ribozyme) is often also regarded as enzymatic.

catalytic activity, acting on a glycoprotein [GO_0140103]

Catalysis of a biochemical reaction at physiological temperatures in which one of the substrates is a glycoprotein.

catalytic activity, acting on a nucleic acid [GO_0140640]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify a nucleic acid.

catalytic activity, acting on a protein [GO_0140096]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify a protein.

catalytic activity, acting on DNA [GO_0140097]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify DNA.

catalytic activity, acting on RNA [GO_0140098]

Catalytic activity that acts to modify RNA, driven by ATP hydrolysis.

catalytic complex [GO_1902494]

A protein complex which is capable of catalytic activity.

catechol-containing compound biosynthetic process [GO_0009713]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of catechol-containing compounds. Catechol is a compound containing a pyrocatechol nucleus or substituent.

catechol-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0009712]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a compound containing a pyrocatechol (1,2-benzenediol) nucleus or substituent.

catecholamine binding [GO_1901338]

Binding to catecholamine.

catecholamine biosynthetic process [GO_0042423]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

catecholamine metabolic process [GO_0006584]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

catecholamine secretion [GO_0050432]

The regulated release of catecholamines by a cell. The catecholamines are a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

catecholamine transport [GO_0051937]

The directed movement of catecholamines, a group of physiologically important biogenic amines that possess a catechol (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) nucleus and are derivatives of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine.

cation binding [GO_0043169]

Binding to a cation, a charged atom or group of atoms with a net positive charge.

cation transport [GO_0006812]

The directed movement of cations, atoms or small molecules with a net positive charge, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

CD4 biosynthetic process [GO_0045222]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CD4, a CD marker that occurs on T-helper cells and is involved in MHC class II restricted interactions.

cell adhesion [GO_0007155]

The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules.

cell adhesion mediator activity [GO_0098631]

The binding by a cell-adhesion protein on a cell surface to an adhesion molecule on another cell surface, to mediate adhesion of the cell to the external substrate or to another cell.

cell adhesion molecule binding [GO_0050839]

Binding to a cell adhesion molecule.

cell body [GO_0044297]

The portion of a cell bearing surface projections such as axons, dendrites, cilia, or flagella that includes the nucleus, but excludes all cell projections. Note that ‘cell body’ and ‘cell soma’ are not used in the literature for cells that lack projections, nor for some cells (e.g. yeast with mating projections) that do have projections.

cell communication [GO_0007154]

Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

cell communication involved in cardiac conduction [GO_0086065]

Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings that contributes to the process of cardiac conduction. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

cell cortex [GO_0005938]

The region of a cell that lies just beneath the plasma membrane and often, but not always, contains a network of actin filaments and associated proteins.

cell cortex region [GO_0099738]

The complete extent of cell cortex that underlies some some region of the plasma membrane.

cell cycle [GO_0007049]

The progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events. Canonically, the cell cycle comprises the replication and segregation of genetic material followed by the division of the cell, but in endocycles or syncytial cells nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division.

cell cycle phase [GO_0022403]

One of the distinct periods or stages into which the cell cycle is divided. Each phase is characterized by the occurrence of specific biochemical and morphological events. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

cell cycle process [GO_0022402]

The cellular process that ensures successive accurate and complete genome replication and chromosome segregation.

cell death [GO_0008219]

Any biological process that results in permanent cessation of all vital functions of a cell. A cell should be considered dead when any one of the following molecular or morphological criteria is met: (1) the cell has lost the integrity of its plasma membrane; (2) the cell, including its nucleus, has undergone complete fragmentation into discrete bodies (frequently referred to as apoptotic bodies). The cell corpse (or its fragments) may be engulfed by an adjacent cell in vivo, but engulfment of whole cells should not be considered a strict criteria to define cell death as, under some circumstances, live engulfed cells can be released from phagosomes (see PMID:18045538). This term should not be used for direct annotation. The only exception should be when experimental data (e.g., staining with trypan blue or propidium iodide) show that cell death has occurred, but fail to provide details on death modality (accidental versus programmed). When information is provided on the cell death mechanism, annotations should be made to the appropriate descendant of ‘cell death’ (such as, but not limited to, GO:0097300 ‘programmed necrotic cell death’ or GO:0006915 ‘apoptotic process’). Also, if experimental data suggest that a gene product influences cell death indirectly, rather than being involved in the death process directly, consider annotating to a ‘regulation’ term.

cell development [GO_0048468]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cell development does not include the steps involved in committing a cell to a specific fate.

cell differentiation [GO_0030154]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism’s life history. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate and its subsequent development to the mature state.

cell differentiation in hindbrain [GO_0021533]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the mature cells of the hindbrain. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.

cell differentiation in spinal cord [GO_0021515]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells of the spinal cord. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.

cell division [GO_0051301]

The process resulting in division and partitioning of components of a cell to form more cells; may or may not be accompanied by the physical separation of a cell into distinct, individually membrane-bounded daughter cells. Note that this term differs from ‘cytokinesis ; GO:0000910’ in that cytokinesis does not include nuclear division.

cell growth [GO_0016049]

The process in which a cell irreversibly increases in size over time by accretion and biosynthetic production of matter similar to that already present.

cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development [GO_0061049]

The growth of a cardiac muscle cell, where growth contributes to the progression of the cell over time from its initial formation to its mature state.

cell junction [GO_0030054]

A cellular component that forms a specialized region of connection between two or more cells, or between a cell and the extracellular matrix, or between two membrane-bound components of a cell, such as flagella.

cell junction assembly [GO_0034329]

A cellular process that results in the aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a cell junction.

cell junction disassembly [GO_0150146]

The disaggregation of a cell junction into its constituent components.

cell junction organization [GO_0034330]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cell junction. A cell junction is a specialized region of connection between two cells or between a cell and the extracellular matrix.

cell leading edge [GO_0031252]

The area of a motile cell closest to the direction of movement.

cell leading edge cell cortex [GO_1904269]

The cell cortex of the leading edge of a cell.

cell migration [GO_0016477]

The controlled self-propelled movement of a cell from one site to a destination guided by molecular cues. Cell migration is a central process in the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms.

cell migration in hindbrain [GO_0021535]

The orderly movement of a cell that will reside in the hindbrain.

cell migration involved in coronary angiogenesis [GO_0060981]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the formation of new blood vessels in the heart from pre-existing blood vessels.

cell migration involved in coronary vasculogenesis [GO_0060980]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the differentiation of an endothelial cell that will form the blood vessels of the heart.

cell migration involved in endocardial cushion formation [GO_0003273]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the formation of an endocardial cushion. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

cell migration involved in gastrulation [GO_0042074]

The migration of individual cells within the blastocyst to help establish the multi-layered body plan of the organism (gastrulation). For example, the migration of cells from the surface to the interior of the embryo (ingression).

cell migration involved in heart development [GO_0060973]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the progression of the heart over time, from its initial formation, to the mature organ.

cell migration involved in heart formation [GO_0060974]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that contribute to the formation of the heart. The initial heart structure is made up of mesoderm-derived heart progenitor cells and neural crest-derived cells.

cell migration involved in vasculogenesis [GO_0035441]

The orderly movement of a cell from one site to another that will contribute to the differentiation of an endothelial cell that will form de novo blood vessels and tubes.

cell morphogenesis [GO_0000902]

The developmental process in which the size or shape of a cell is generated and organized.

cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation [GO_0000904]

The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism’s life history.

cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation [GO_0048667]

The process in which the structures of a neuron are generated and organized. This process occurs while the initially relatively unspecialized cell is acquiring the specialized features of a neuron.

cell motility [GO_0048870]

Any process involved in the controlled self-propelled movement of a cell that results in translocation of the cell from one place to another.

cell motility involved in camera-type eye morphogenesis [GO_0003411]

Any process involved in the controlled self-propelled movement of a cell that results in translocation of the cell from one place to another and contributes to the physical shaping or formation of the camera-type eye.

cell part morphogenesis [GO_0032990]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a cell part are generated and organized.

cell periphery [GO_0071944]

The part of a cell encompassing the cell cortex, the plasma membrane, and any external encapsulating structures.

cell population proliferation [GO_0008283]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. This term was moved out from being a child of ‘cellular process’ because it is a cell population-level process, and cellular processes are restricted to those processes that involve individual cells. Also note that this term is intended to be used for the proliferation of cells within a multicellular organism, not for the expansion of a population of single-celled organisms.

cell projection [GO_0042995]

A prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.

cell projection assembly [GO_0030031]

Formation of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.

cell projection membrane [GO_0031253]

The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a plasma membrane bounded cell surface projection.

cell projection morphogenesis [GO_0048858]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a cell projection are generated and organized.

cell projection organization [GO_0030030]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a flagellum or axon.

cell proliferation in hindbrain [GO_0021534]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population in the hindbrain.

cell proliferation in midbrain [GO_0033278]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population in the midbrain.

cell proliferation involved in compound eye morphogenesis [GO_0035736]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population that contributes to compound eye morphogenesis.

cell proliferation involved in endocardial cushion morphogenesis [GO_1905315]

Any cell proliferation that is involved in endocardial cushion morphogenesis.

cell proliferation involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0061323]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

cell proliferation involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_0061325]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population that contributes to the shaping of the outflow tract.

cell-cell fusion [GO_0140253]

A cellular process in which two or more cells combine together, their plasma membrane fusing, producing a single cell. In some cases, nuclei fuse, producing a polyploid cell, while in other cases, nuclei remain separate, producing a syncytium.

cell-cell junction [GO_0005911]

A cell junction that forms a connection between two or more cells of an organism; excludes direct cytoplasmic intercellular bridges, such as ring canals in insects.

cell-cell junction assembly [GO_0007043]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a junction between cells.

cell-cell junction disassembly [GO_0150147]

The disaggregation of a cell-cell junction into its constituent components.

cell-cell junction organization [GO_0045216]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cell-cell junction. A cell-cell junction is a specialized region of connection between two cells.

cell-cell signaling [GO_0007267]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another. This process includes signal transduction in the receiving cell and, where applicable, release of a ligand and any processes that actively facilitate its transport and presentation to the receiving cell. Examples include signaling via soluble ligands, via cell adhesion molecules and via gap junctions.

cell-cell signaling involved in cardiac conduction [GO_0086019]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another and contributes to the heart process that regulates cardiac muscle contraction; beginning with the generation of an action potential in the sinoatrial node and ending with regulation of contraction of the myocardium.

cell-cell signaling involved in lung development [GO_0060495]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from one cell to another and contributes to the progression of the lung, from its initial state to the mature structure.

cell-cell signaling via exosome [GO_0099156]

Cell-cell signaling in which the ligand is carried between cells by an exosome.

cellular amide metabolic process [GO_0043603]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving an amide, any derivative of an oxoacid in which an acidic hydroxy group has been replaced by an amino or substituted amino group, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular amine metabolic process [GO_0044106]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any organic compound that is weakly basic in character and contains an amino or a substituted amino group, as carried out by individual cells. Amines are called primary, secondary, or tertiary according to whether one, two, or three carbon atoms are attached to the nitrogen atom.

cellular amino acid biosynthetic process [GO_0008652]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of amino acids, organic acids containing one or more amino substituents.

cellular amino acid metabolic process [GO_0006520]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving amino acids, carboxylic acids containing one or more amino groups, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular anatomical entity [GO_0110165]

A part of a cellular organism that is either an immaterial entity or a material entity with granularity above the level of a protein complex but below that of an anatomical system. Or, a substance produced by a cellular organism with granularity above the level of a protein complex.

cellular aromatic compound metabolic process [GO_0006725]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving aromatic compounds, any organic compound characterized by one or more planar rings, each of which contains conjugated double bonds and delocalized pi electrons, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular biogenic amine biosynthetic process [GO_0042401]

The chemical reactions and pathways occurring at the level of individual cells resulting in the formation of any of a group of naturally occurring, biologically active amines, such as norepinephrine, histamine, and serotonin, many of which act as neurotransmitters.

cellular biogenic amine metabolic process [GO_0006576]

The chemical reactions and pathways occurring at the level of individual cells involving any of a group of naturally occurring, biologically active amines, such as norepinephrine, histamine, and serotonin, many of which act as neurotransmitters.

cellular biosynthetic process [GO_0044249]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of substances, carried out by individual cells.

cellular component assembly [GO_0022607]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a cellular component.

cellular component assembly involved in morphogenesis [GO_0010927]

The cellular component assembly that is part of the initial shaping of the component during its developmental progression.

cellular component biogenesis [GO_0044085]

A process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a cellular component. Includes biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, and those macromolecular modifications that are involved in synthesis or assembly of the cellular component.

cellular component disassembly [GO_0022411]

A cellular process that results in the breakdown of a cellular component.

cellular component disassembly involved in execution phase of apoptosis [GO_0006921]

The breakdown of structures such as organelles, proteins, or other macromolecular structures during apoptosis.

cellular component morphogenesis [GO_0032989]

The process in which cellular structures, including whole cells or cell parts, are generated and organized.

cellular component organization [GO_0016043]

A process that results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cellular component.

cellular component organization or biogenesis [GO_0071840]

A process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cellular component.

cellular developmental process [GO_0048869]

A biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cell over time from an initial condition to a later condition.

cellular homeostasis [GO_0019725]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state at the level of the cell.

cellular ketone metabolic process [GO_0042180]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, CO, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms, as carried out by individual cells. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR, where R and R are alkyl or aryl groups.

cellular localization [GO_0051641]

A cellular localization process whereby a substance or cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within a cell including the localization of substances or cellular entities to the cell membrane.

cellular macromolecule biosynthetic process [GO_0034645]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass, carried out by individual cells.

cellular macromolecule localization [GO_0070727]

Any process in which a macromolecule is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location at the level of a cell. Localization at the cellular level encompasses movement within the cell, from within the cell to the cell surface, or from one location to another at the surface of a cell.

cellular macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0044260]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular metabolic process [GO_0044237]

The chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances.

cellular nitrogen compound biosynthetic process [GO_0044271]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds.

cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_0034641]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving various organic and inorganic nitrogenous compounds, as carried out by individual cells.

cellular pigmentation [GO_0033059]

The deposition or aggregation of coloring matter in a cell.

cellular process [GO_0009987]

Any process that is carried out at the cellular level, but not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.

cellular process involved in reproduction in multicellular organism [GO_0022412]

A process, occurring at the cellular level, that is involved in the reproductive function of a multicellular organism.

cellular protein localization [GO_0034613]

Any process in which a protein is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location at the level of a cell. Localization at the cellular level encompasses movement within the cell, from within the cell to the cell surface, or from one location to another at the surface of a cell.

cellular protein metabolic process [GO_0044267]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a specific protein, rather than of proteins in general, occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes cellular protein modification.

cellular protein modification process [GO_0006464]

The covalent alteration of one or more amino acids occurring in proteins, peptides and nascent polypeptides (co-translational, post-translational modifications) occurring at the level of an individual cell. Includes the modification of charged tRNAs that are destined to occur in a protein (pre-translation modification).

cellular response to abiotic stimulus [GO_0071214]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an abiotic (non-living) stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to alcohol [GO_0097306]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an alcohol stimulus.

cellular response to alkaloid [GO_0071312]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an alkaloid stimulus. Alkaloids are a large group of nitrogenous substances found in naturally in plants, many of which have extracts that are pharmacologically active.

cellular response to antibiotic [GO_0071236]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an antibiotic stimulus. An antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism which has the capacity to inhibit the growth of or to kill other microorganisms.

cellular response to caffeine [GO_0071313]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a caffeine stimulus. Caffeine is an alkaloid found in numerous plant species, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding upon them.

cellular response to chemical stimulus [GO_0070887]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a chemical stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to DNA damage stimulus [GO_0006974]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating damage to its DNA from environmental insults or errors during metabolism.

cellular response to endogenous stimulus [GO_0071495]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus arising within the organism. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to environmental stimulus [GO_0104004]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an environmental stimulus.

cellular response to farnesol [GO_0097308]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a farnesol stimulus.

cellular response to light stimulus [GO_0071482]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a light stimulus, electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths classified as infrared, visible or ultraviolet light.

cellular response to lipid [GO_0071396]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a lipid stimulus.

cellular response to nitrogen compound [GO_1901699]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a nitrogen compound stimulus.

cellular response to organic cyclic compound [GO_0071407]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic cyclic compound stimulus.

cellular response to organic substance [GO_0071310]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organic substance stimulus.

cellular response to organonitrogen compound [GO_0071417]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an organonitrogen stimulus. An organonitrogen compound is formally a compound containing at least one carbon-nitrogen bond.

cellular response to oxygen-containing compound [GO_1901701]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an oxygen-containing compound stimulus.

cellular response to purine-containing compound [GO_0071415]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a purine-containing compound stimulus.

cellular response to radiation [GO_0071478]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of an electromagnetic radiation stimulus. Electromagnetic radiation is a propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components. These components oscillate at right angles to each other and to the direction of propagation. Note that ‘radiation’ refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength.

cellular response to stimulus [GO_0051716]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. The process begins with detection of the stimulus by a cell and ends with a change in state or activity or the cell. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to stress [GO_0033554]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress. The stress is usually, but not necessarily, exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation). Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

cellular response to xenobiotic stimulus [GO_0071466]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus from a xenobiotic, a compound foreign to the organism exposed to it. It may be synthesized by another organism (like ampicilin) or it can be a synthetic chemical.

cellular_component [GO_0005575]

A location, relative to cellular compartments and structures, occupied by a macromolecular machine when it carries out a molecular function. There are two ways in which the gene ontology describes locations of gene products: (1) relative to cellular structures (e.g., cytoplasmic side of plasma membrane) or compartments (e.g., mitochondrion), and (2) the stable macromolecular complexes of which they are parts (e.g., the ribosome). Note that, in addition to forming the root of the cellular component ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose cellular component is unknown. When this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the cellular component of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ‘no data’ (ND), is used to indicate this. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the cellular component ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose cellular component is unknown. Note that when this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the cellular component of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ND, no data, is used to indicate this.

central nervous system development [GO_0007417]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the central nervous system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the brain and spinal cord. In those invertebrates with a central nervous system it typically consists of a brain, cerebral ganglia and a nerve cord.

central nervous system formation [GO_0021556]

The process that gives rise to the central nervous system. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the brain, spinal cord and spinal nerves. In those invertebrates with a central nervous system it typically consists of a brain, cerebral ganglia and a nerve cord.

central nervous system morphogenesis [GO_0021551]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the central nervous system is generated and organized. The central nervous system is the core nervous system that serves an integrating and coordinating function. In vertebrates it consists of the brain and spinal cord. In those invertebrates with a central nervous system it typically consists of a brain, cerebral ganglia and a nerve cord.

central nervous system neuron development [GO_0021954]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron whose cell body is located in the central nervous system, from initial commitment of the cell to a neuronal fate, to the fully functional differentiated neuron.

central nervous system neuron differentiation [GO_0021953]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron whose cell body resides in the central nervous system.

central nervous system vasculogenesis [GO_0022009]

The differentiation of endothelial cells from progenitor cells during blood vessel development, and the de novo formation of blood vessels and tubes in the central nervous system. The capillary endothelial cells in the brain are specialized to form the blood-brain barrier.

chemical synaptic transmission [GO_0007268]

The vesicular release of classical neurotransmitter molecules from a presynapse, across a chemical synapse, the subsequent activation of neurotransmitter receptors at the postsynapse of a target cell (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) and the effects of this activation on the postsynaptic membrane potential and ionic composition of the postsynaptic cytosol. This process encompasses both spontaneous and evoked release of neurotransmitter and all parts of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Evoked transmission starts with the arrival of an action potential at the presynapse.

chemosensory behavior [GO_0007635]

Behavior that is dependent upon the sensation of chemicals.

chondroblast differentiation [GO_0060591]

The process in which a mesenchymal cell, acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a chondroblast. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a chondroblast fate. A chondroblast is a precursor cell to chondrocytes.

chondrocyte development [GO_0002063]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a chondrocyte over time, from its commitment to its mature state. Chondrocyte development does not include the steps involved in committing a chondroblast to a chondrocyte fate.

chondrocyte development involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0003433]

The progression of a chondrocyte over time from after its commitment to its mature state where the chondrocyte will contribute to the shaping of an endochondral bone.

chondrocyte differentiation [GO_0002062]

The process in which a chondroblast acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a chondrocyte. A chondrocyte is a polymorphic cell that forms cartilage.

chondrocyte differentiation involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0003413]

The process in which a chondroblast acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a chondrocyte that will contribute to the development of a bone. A chondrocyte is a polymorphic cell that forms cartilage.

chondrocyte morphogenesis [GO_0090171]

The process in which the structures of a chondrocyte are generated and organized. This process occurs while the initially relatively unspecialized cell is acquiring the specialized features of a chondrocyte.

chondrocyte morphogenesis involved in endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0003414]

The process in which the structures of a chondrocyte that will contribute to bone development are generated and organized.

chordate embryonic development [GO_0043009]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo over time, from zygote formation through a stage including a notochord and neural tube until birth or egg hatching.

chromatin [GO_0000785]

The ordered and organized complex of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that forms the chromosome. Chromosomes include parts that are not part of the chromatin. Examples include the kinetochore.

chromatin assembly [GO_0031497]

The assembly of DNA, histone proteins, other associated proteins, and sometimes RNA, into chromatin structure, beginning with the formation of the basic unit, the nucleosome, followed by organization of the nucleosomes into higher order structures, ultimately giving rise to a complex organization of specific domains within the nucleus.

chromatin assembly or disassembly [GO_0006333]

The formation or destruction of chromatin structures.

chromatin binding [GO_0003682]

Binding to chromatin, the network of fibers of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that make up the chromosomes of the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase.

chromatin disassembly [GO_0031498]

The controlled breakdown of chromatin from a higher order structure into its simpler subcomponents, DNA, histones, other proteins, and sometimes RNA.

chromatin organization [GO_0006325]

Any process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of the physical structure of eukaryotic chromatin.

chromatin silencing complex [GO_0005677]

Any protein complex that mediates changes in chromatin structure that result in transcriptional silencing.

chromosome [GO_0005694]

A structure composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins (e.g. histones) that carries hereditary information. Chromosomes include parts that are not part of the chromatin. Examples include the kinetochore.

chromosome condensation [GO_0030261]

The progressive compaction of dispersed interphase chromatin into threadlike chromosomes prior to mitotic or meiotic nuclear division, or during apoptosis, in eukaryotic cells.

chromosome localization [GO_0050000]

Any process in which a chromosome is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.

chromosome organization [GO_0051276]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level that results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of chromosomes, structures composed of a very long molecule of DNA and associated proteins that carries hereditary information. This term covers covalent modifications at the molecular level as well as spatial relationships among the major components of a chromosome.

chromosome segregation [GO_0007059]

The process in which genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized into specific structures and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets. In eukaryotes, chromosome segregation begins with the condensation of chromosomes, includes chromosome separation, and ends when chromosomes have completed movement to the spindle poles.

ciliary basal body-plasma membrane docking [GO_0097711]

The docking of a cytosolic centriole/basal body to the plasma membrane via the ciliary transition fibers. In some species this may happen via an intermediate step, by first docking to the ciliary vesicle via the ciliary transition fibers. The basal body-ciliary vesicle then relocates to the plasma membrane, followed by the ciliary vesicle fusing with the plasma membrane, effectively attaching the basal body to the plasma membrane. Basal bodies in jawed vertebrates appear to first attach to a ciliary vesicle. It is unclear how specific this is to jawed vertebrates or if other organisms also employ this sequence. Some species like Giardia intestinalis do not relocate their basal bodies to the plasma membrane, but have their axonemes extend through the cytosol to then protrude out of the cell to form flagella.

ciliary body morphogenesis [GO_0061073]

The process in which the ciliary body generated and organized. The ciliary body is the circumferential tissue inside the eye composed of the ciliary muscle and ciliary processes.

ciliary membrane [GO_0060170]

The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a cilium. Note that cilia and eukaryotic flagella are deemed to be equivalent.

ciliary plasm [GO_0097014]

All of the contents of a cilium, excluding the plasma membrane surrounding the cilium. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent. Also, researchers consider the composition of both the plasm and the membrane of the cilium to be detectably different from that in the non-ciliary cytosol and plasma membrane (e.g. in terms of calcium ion concentration, membrane lipid composition, and more). For this reason, the term “ciliary plasm” is not linked to “cytoplasm”.

ciliary transition zone [GO_0035869]

A region of the cilium between the basal body and proximal segment that is characterized by Y-shaped assemblages that connect axonemal microtubules to the ciliary membrane. The ciliary transition zone appears to function as a gate that controls ciliary membrane composition and separates the cytosol from the ciliary plasm. Depending on the species, this region may have a distinct geometrically shaped electron-dense structure within the axonemal lumen visible in electron microscopy images; most animals don’t display this inner structure. The axoneme extends through the ciliary transition zone, but only consists of the outer doublets. The central pair, axonemal spokes, and dynein complexes are not found in this part of the ciliary shaft. Note that the connecting cilium of the photoreceptor cells is thought to be equivalent to the transition zone.

ciliary transition zone assembly [GO_1905349]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a ciliary transition zone.

cilium [GO_0005929]

A specialized eukaryotic organelle that consists of a filiform extrusion of the cell surface and of some cytoplasmic parts. Each cilium is largely bounded by an extrusion of the cytoplasmic (plasma) membrane, and contains a regular longitudinal array of microtubules, anchored to a basal body. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent. In most eukaryotic species, intracellular sub-components of the cilium, such as the ciliary base and rootlet, are located near the plasma membrane. In Diplomonads such as Giardia, instead, the same ciliary parts are located further intracellularly. Also, ‘cilium’ may be used when axonemal structure and/or motility are unknown, or when axonemal structure is unusual. For all other cases, please refer to children of ‘cilium’. Finally, note that any role of ciliary proteins in sensory events should be captured by annotating to relevant biological process terms.

cilium assembly [GO_0060271]

The assembly of a cilium, a specialized eukaryotic organelle that consists of a filiform extrusion of the cell surface. Each cilium is bounded by an extrusion of the cytoplasmic membrane, and contains a regular longitudinal array of microtubules, anchored basally in a centriole. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent.

cilium disassembly [GO_0061523]

A cellular process that results in the breakdown of a cilium. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent.

cilium organization [GO_0044782]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a cilium, a specialized eukaryotic organelle that consists of a filiform extrusion of the cell surface. Each cilium is bounded by an extrusion of the cytoplasmic membrane, and contains a regular longitudinal array of microtubules, anchored basally in a centriole. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent.

circadian behavior [GO_0048512]

The specific behavior of an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.

circadian mating behavior [GO_0035648]

The fluctuation in mating behavior that occurs over an approximately 24 hour cycle.

circadian rhythm [GO_0007623]

Any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.

circadian sleep/wake cycle [GO_0042745]

The cycle from wakefulness through an orderly succession of sleep states and stages that occurs on an approximately 24 hour rhythm.

circadian sleep/wake cycle process [GO_0022410]

A behavioral process involved in the cycle from wakefulness through an orderly succession of sleep states and stages that occurs on an approximately 24 hour rhythm.

circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep [GO_0050802]

The part of the circadian sleep/wake cycle where the organism is asleep.

circulatory system development [GO_0072359]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the circulatory system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The circulatory system is the organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis.

circulatory system process [GO_0003013]

A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of the circulatory system. The circulatory system is an organ system that moves extracellular fluids to and from tissue within a multicellular organism.

cognition [GO_0050890]

The operation of the mind by which an organism becomes aware of objects of thought or perception; it includes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory.

collagen binding [GO_0005518]

Binding to collagen, a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals. Collagen is highly enriched in glycine (some regions are 33% glycine) and proline, occurring predominantly as 3-hydroxyproline (about 20%).

collagen biosynthetic process [GO_0032964]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of collagen, any of a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals. Collagen is highly enriched in glycine (some regions are 33% glycine) and proline, occurring predominantly as 3-hydroxyproline (about 20%).

collagen fibril binding [GO_0098633]

Binding to a collagen fibril.

collagen fibril organization [GO_0030199]

Any process that determines the size and arrangement of collagen fibrils within an extracellular matrix.

collagen metabolic process [GO_0032963]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving collagen, any of a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals. Collagen is highly enriched in glycine (some regions are 33% glycine) and proline, occurring predominantly as 3-hydroxyproline (about 20%).

collagen network [GO_0098645]

A supramolecular complex that consists of collagen triple helices associated to form a network.

collagen trimer [GO_0005581]

A protein complex consisting of three collagen chains assembled into a left-handed triple helix. These trimers typically assemble into higher order structures.

collagen type IV trimer [GO_0005587]

A collagen heterotrimer containing type IV alpha chains; [alpha1(IV)]2alpha2(IV) trimers are commonly observed, although more type IV alpha chains exist and may be present in type IV trimers; type IV collagen triple helices associate to form 3 dimensional nets within basement membranes.

collagen-containing extracellular matrix [GO_0062023]

An extracellular matrix consisting mainly of proteins (especially collagen) and glycosaminoglycans (mostly as proteoglycans) that provides not only essential physical scaffolding for the cellular constituents but can also initiate crucial biochemical and biomechanical cues required for tissue morphogenesis, differentiation and homeostasis. The components are secreted by cells in the vicinity and form a sheet underlying or overlying cells such as endothelial and epithelial cells.

columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell development [GO_0002066]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell is a cell usually found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface. Columnar/cuboidal epithelial cells take on the shape of a column or cube.

columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell differentiation [GO_0002065]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell. A columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell is a cell usually found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface. Columnar/cuboidal epithelial cells take on the shape of a column or cube.

complex of collagen trimers [GO_0098644]

A complex of collagen trimers such as a fibril or collagen network.

compound eye development [GO_0048749]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the compound eye over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The compound eye is an organ of sight that contains multiple repeating units, often arranged hexagonally. Each unit has its own lens and photoreceptor cell(s) and can generate either a single pixelated image or multiple images, per eye.

compound eye morphogenesis [GO_0001745]

The morphogenetic process in which the anatomical structures of the compound eye are generated and organized. The adult compound eye is a precise assembly of 700-800 ommatidia. Each ommatidium is composed of 20 cells, identified by cell type and position. An example of compound eye morphogenesis is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0001751]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an eye photoreceptor cell.

compound eye retinal cell apoptotic process [GO_1990010]

Any apoptotic process in a compound eye retinal cell.

compound eye retinal cell programmed cell death [GO_0046667]

Programmed cell death that occurs in the retina to remove excess cells between ommatidia, thus resulting in a hexagonal lattice, precise with respect to cell number and position surrounding each ommatidium.

connective tissue development [GO_0061448]

The progression of a connective tissue over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

contractile fiber [GO_0043292]

Fibers, composed of actin, myosin, and associated proteins, found in cells of smooth or striated muscle.

copulation [GO_0007620]

The act of sexual union between male and female, involving the transfer of sperm.

cornea development in camera-type eye [GO_0061303]

The progression of the cornea over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cornea is the transparent structure that covers the anterior of the eye.

coronary vasculature development [GO_0060976]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the blood vessels of the heart over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

coronary vasculature morphogenesis [GO_0060977]

The process in which the anatomical structures of blood vessels of the heart are generated and organized. The blood vessel is the vasculature carrying blood.

coronary vein morphogenesis [GO_0003169]

The process in which the anatomical structures of veins of the heart are generated and organized.

courtship behavior [GO_0007619]

The behavior of an organism for the purpose of attracting sexual partners.

cranial ganglion development [GO_0061550]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cranial ganglion over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

cranial ganglion formation [GO_0061560]

The process that gives rise to a cranial ganglion. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts.

cranial ganglion morphogenesis [GO_0061559]

The process in which the anatomical structure of a cranial ganglion is generated and organized.

cranial nerve development [GO_0021545]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cranial nerves over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the hindbrain. These nerves are sensory, motor, or mixed in nature, and provide the motor and general sensory innervation of the head, neck and viscera. They mediate vision, hearing, olfaction and taste and carry the parasympathetic innervation of the autonomic ganglia that control visceral functions.

cranial nerve formation [GO_0021603]

The process that gives rise to the cranial nerves. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the hindbrain. These nerves are sensory, motor, or mixed in nature, and provide the motor and general sensory innervation of the head, neck and viscera. They mediate vision, hearing, olfaction and taste and carry the parasympathetic innervation of the autonomic ganglia that control visceral functions.

cranial nerve morphogenesis [GO_0021602]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the cranial nerves are generated and organized. The cranial nerves are composed of twelve pairs of nerves that emanate from the nervous tissue of the hindbrain. These nerves are sensory, motor, or mixed in nature, and provide the motor and general sensory innervation of the head, neck and viscera. They mediate vision, hearing, olfaction and taste and carry the parasympathetic innervation of the autonomic ganglia that control visceral functions.

cranial skeletal system development [GO_1904888]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a cranial skeletal system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The cranial skeletal system is the skeletal subdivision of the head, and includes the skull (cranium plus mandible), pharyngeal and/or hyoid apparatus.

cytokine receptor binding [GO_0005126]

Binding to a cytokine receptor.

cytokinesis [GO_0000910]

The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane of a cell and its partitioning into two daughter cells. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. When annotating eukaryotic species, mitotic or meiotic cytokinesis should always be specified for manual annotation and for prokaryotic species use ‘FtsZ-dependent cytokinesis ; GO:0043093’ or Cdv-dependent cytokinesis ; GO:0061639. Also, note that cytokinesis does not necessarily result in physical separation and detachment of the two daughter cells from each other.

cytoplasm [GO_0005737]

The contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.

cytoplasm organization [GO_0007028]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm is all of the contents of a cell excluding the plasma membrane and nucleus, but including other subcellular structures.

cytoplasmic microtubule [GO_0005881]

Any microtubule in the cytoplasm of a cell.

cytoplasmic microtubule bundle [GO_1905720]

Any microtubule bundle that is part of a cytoplasm.

cytoplasmic microtubule depolymerization [GO_0010938]

The removal of tubulin heterodimers from one or both ends of a cytoplasmic microtubule.

cytoplasmic microtubule organization [GO_0031122]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of structures formed of microtubules and associated proteins in the cytoplasm of a cell.

cytoplasmic region [GO_0099568]

Any (proper) part of the cytoplasm of a single cell of sufficient size to still be considered cytoplasm.

cytoplasmic vesicle [GO_0031410]

A vesicle found in the cytoplasm of a cell.

cytoplasmic vesicle membrane [GO_0030659]

The lipid bilayer surrounding a cytoplasmic vesicle.

cytoskeletal protein binding [GO_0008092]

Binding to a protein component of a cytoskeleton (actin, microtubule, or intermediate filament cytoskeleton).

cytoskeleton [GO_0005856]

Any of the various filamentous elements that form the internal framework of cells, and typically remain after treatment of the cells with mild detergent to remove membrane constituents and soluble components of the cytoplasm. The term embraces intermediate filaments, microfilaments, microtubules, the microtrabecular lattice, and other structures characterized by a polymeric filamentous nature and long-range order within the cell. The various elements of the cytoskeleton not only serve in the maintenance of cellular shape but also have roles in other cellular functions, including cellular movement, cell division, endocytosis, and movement of organelles.

cytoskeleton organization [GO_0007010]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures.

cytoskeleton-dependent intracellular transport [GO_0030705]

The directed movement of substances along cytoskeletal fibers such as microfilaments or microtubules within a cell.

dendrite [GO_0030425]

A neuron projection that has a short, tapering, morphology. Dendrites receive and integrate signals from other neurons or from sensory stimuli, and conduct nerve impulses towards the axon or the cell body. In most neurons, the impulse is conveyed from dendrites to axon via the cell body, but in some types of unipolar neuron, the impulse does not travel via the cell body.

dendrite cytoplasm [GO_0032839]

All of the contents of a dendrite, excluding the surrounding plasma membrane.

dendritic tree [GO_0097447]

The entire complement of dendrites for a neuron, consisting of each primary dendrite and all its branches.

dermal bone morphogenesis [GO_0061972]

The process in which bone which forms superficially in the organism are generated and organized.

dermatome development [GO_0061054]

The progression of the dermatome over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The dermatome is the portion of a somite that will form skin.

descending aorta development [GO_0035906]

The progression of the descending aorta over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The descending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system from the arch of aorta to the point where it divides into the common iliac arteries. In a two-pass circulatory system blood passes twice through the heart to supply the body once.

descending aorta morphogenesis [GO_0035911]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the descending aorta are generated and organized. The descending aorta is the portion of the aorta in a two-pass circulatory system from the arch of aorta to the point where it divides into the common iliac arteries. In a two-pass circulatory system blood passes twice through the heart to supply the body once.

detection of abiotic stimulus [GO_0009582]

The series of events in which an (non-living) abiotic stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of biotic stimulus [GO_0009595]

The series of events in which a biotic stimulus, one caused or produced by a living organism, is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of calcium ion [GO_0005513]

The series of events in which a calcium ion stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of carbon dioxide [GO_0003031]

The series of events in which a carbon dioxide stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus [GO_0009593]

The series of events in which a chemical stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050907]

The series of events in which a chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of sensory perception.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of bitter taste [GO_0001580]

The series of events required for a bitter taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0050968]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of salty taste [GO_0001583]

The series of events required for a salty taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of smell [GO_0050911]

The series of events involved in the perception of smell in which an olfactory chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sour taste [GO_0001581]

The series of events required for a sour taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sweet taste [GO_0001582]

The series of events required for a sweet taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of taste [GO_0050912]

The series of events involved in the perception of taste in which a gustatory chemical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of chemical stimulus involved in sensory perception of umami taste [GO_0046535]

The series of events required for a umami taste stimulus to be received and converted to a molecular signal. Umami taste is the savory taste of meats and other foods that are rich in glutamates.

detection of cold stimulus involved in thermoception [GO_0120169]

The series of events in which a cold stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of thermoception.

detection of external biotic stimulus [GO_0098581]

The series of events in which an external biotic stimulus is detected and converted into a molecular signal. An external biotic stimulus is defined as one caused or produced by a living organism other than the one being stimulated.

detection of external stimulus [GO_0009581]

The series of events in which an external stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of high humidity [GO_0098516]

The series of events in which high humidity is detected and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of high humidity stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0098514]

The series of events in which a high humidity stimulus is detected and converted into a molecular signal as a part of the sensory detection of high humidity.

detection of hot stimulus involved in thermoception [GO_0120168]

The series of events in which a hot stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of thermoception.

detection of humidity [GO_0098513]

The series of events in which a humidity stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of humidity stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0098512]

The series of events in which a humidity stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of the sensory perception of humidity.

detection of hydrogen ion [GO_0003030]

The series of events in which a hydrogen ion stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of light stimulus [GO_0009583]

The series of events in which a light stimulus (in the form of photons) is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of light stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050962]

The series of events in which a light stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal as part of the sensory perception of light.

detection of light stimulus involved in visual perception [GO_0050908]

The series of events involved in visual perception in which a light stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of low humidity [GO_0098517]

The series of events in which low humidity is detected and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of low humidity stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0098515]

The series of events in which a low humidity stimulus is detected and converted into a molecular signal as a part of the sensory detection of low humidity.

detection of mechanical stimulus [GO_0050982]

The series of events by which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in equilibrioception [GO_0050973]

The series of events involved in equilibrioception in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal. During equilibrioception, mechanical stimuli may be in the form of input from pressure receptors or from the labyrinth system of the inner ears.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050974]

The series of events in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of sensory perception.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0050966]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of sound [GO_0050910]

The series of events involved in the perception of sound vibration in which the vibration is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch [GO_0050976]

The series of events involved in the perception of touch in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of wind [GO_0071066]

The series of events involved in the perception of wind in which a mechanical stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of molecule of fungal origin [GO_0032491]

The series of events in which a stimulus from a molecule of fungal origin is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of osmotic stimulus [GO_0043575]

The series of events in which a stimulus indicating an increase or decrease in the concentration of solutes outside the organism or cell is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of pH by chemoreceptor signaling [GO_0003022]

The process in which information about the levels of hydrogen ions are received and are converted to a molecular signal by chemoreceptors.

detection of pheromone [GO_0043695]

The series of events in which a pheromone stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of stimulus [GO_0051606]

The series of events in which a stimulus is received by a cell or organism and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050906]

The series of events involved in sensory perception in which a sensory stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0062149]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of temperature stimulus [GO_0016048]

The series of events in which a temperature stimulus (hot or cold) is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception [GO_0050961]

The series of events in which a temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of sensory perception.

detection of temperature stimulus involved in sensory perception of pain [GO_0050965]

The series of events involved in the perception of pain in which a temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal.

detection of temperature stimulus involved in thermoception [GO_0050960]

The series of events in which a temperature stimulus is received and converted into a molecular signal as part of thermoception.

detection of visible light [GO_0009584]

The series of events in which a visible light stimulus is received by a cell and converted into a molecular signal. A visible light stimulus is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived visually by an organism; for organisms lacking a visual system, this can be defined as light with a wavelength within the range 380 to 780 nm.

development of primary female sexual characteristics [GO_0046545]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the primary female sexual characteristics over time, from their formation to the mature structure. The primary female sexual characteristics are the ovaries, and they develop in response to sex hormone secretion.

development of primary sexual characteristics [GO_0045137]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the primary sexual characteristics over time, from their formation to the mature structures. The primary sexual characteristics are the testes in males and the ovaries in females and they develop in response to sex hormone secretion.

developmental cell growth [GO_0048588]

The growth of a cell, where growth contributes to the progression of the cell over time from one condition to another.

developmental growth [GO_0048589]

The increase in size or mass of an entire organism, a part of an organism or a cell, where the increase in size or mass has the specific outcome of the progression of the organism over time from one condition to another.

developmental growth involved in morphogenesis [GO_0060560]

The increase in size or mass of an anatomical structure that contributes to the structure attaining its shape.

developmental pigmentation [GO_0048066]

The developmental process that results in the deposition of coloring matter in an organism, tissue or cell.

developmental process [GO_0032502]

A biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an integrated living unit: an anatomical structure (which may be a subcellular structure, cell, tissue, or organ), or organism over time from an initial condition to a later condition.

developmental process involved in reproduction [GO_0003006]

A developmental process in which a progressive change in the state of some part of an organism, germline or somatic, specifically contributes to its ability to form offspring.

diaphragm development [GO_0060539]

The progression of the diaphragm over time from its initial formation to the mature structure. The diaphragm is a skeletal muscle that is responsible for contraction and expansion of the lungs.

diaphragm morphogenesis [GO_0060540]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the diaphragm are generated and organized.

dicarboxylic acid transport [GO_0006835]

The directed movement of dicarboxylic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

digestion [GO_0007586]

The whole of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by multicellular organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

digestive system development [GO_0055123]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the digestive system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The digestive system is the entire structure in which digestion takes place. Digestion is all of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by multicellular organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

digestive system process [GO_0022600]

A physical, chemical, or biochemical process carried out by living organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

digestive tract development [GO_0048565]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the digestive tract over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The digestive tract is the anatomical structure through which food passes and is processed.

digestive tract morphogenesis [GO_0048546]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the digestive tract are generated and organized. The digestive tract is the anatomical structure through which food passes and is processed.

direct ossification [GO_0036072]

The formation of bone or of a bony substance, or the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance, that does not require the replacement of preexisting tissues.

directional locomotion [GO_0033058]

Self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another along an axis.

DNA bending complex [GO_1990104]

A protein-DNA complex that contains DNA in combination with a protein which binds to and bends DNA. Often plays a role in DNA compaction.

DNA binding [GO_0003677]

Any molecular function by which a gene product interacts selectively and non-covalently with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

DNA binding, bending [GO_0008301]

The activity of binding selectively and non-covalently to and distorting the original structure of DNA, typically a straight helix, into a bend, or increasing the bend if the original structure was intrinsically bent due to its sequence.

DNA biosynthetic process [GO_0071897]

The cellular DNA metabolic process resulting in the formation of DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, one of the two main types of nucleic acid, consisting of a long unbranched macromolecule formed from one or two strands of linked deoxyribonucleotides, the 3'-phosphate group of each constituent deoxyribonucleotide being joined in 3',5'-phosphodiester linkage to the 5'-hydroxyl group of the deoxyribose moiety of the next one.

DNA conformation change [GO_0071103]

A cellular process that results in a change in the spatial configuration of a DNA molecule. A conformation change can bend DNA, or alter the, twist, writhe, or linking number of a DNA molecule.

DNA metabolic process [GO_0006259]

Any cellular metabolic process involving deoxyribonucleic acid. This is one of the two main types of nucleic acid, consisting of a long, unbranched macromolecule formed from one, or more commonly, two, strands of linked deoxyribonucleotides.

DNA packaging [GO_0006323]

Any process in which DNA and associated proteins are formed into a compact, orderly structure.

DNA packaging complex [GO_0044815]

A protein complex that plays a role in the process of DNA packaging.

DNA repair [GO_0006281]

The process of restoring DNA after damage. Genomes are subject to damage by chemical and physical agents in the environment (e.g. UV and ionizing radiations, chemical mutagens, fungal and bacterial toxins, etc.) and by free radicals or alkylating agents endogenously generated in metabolism. DNA is also damaged because of errors during its replication. A variety of different DNA repair pathways have been reported that include direct reversal, base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, photoreactivation, bypass, double-strand break repair pathway, and mismatch repair pathway.

DNA transport [GO_0051027]

The directed movement of RNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

dopamine secretion [GO_0014046]

The regulated release of dopamine by a cell. Dopamine is a catecholamine and a precursor of adrenaline and noradrenaline. It acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system but it is also produced peripherally and acts as a hormone.

dopamine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061527]

The regulated release of dopamine by a cell in which the dopamine acts as a neurotransmitter.

dopamine transport [GO_0015872]

The directed movement of dopamine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Dopamine is a catecholamine neurotransmitter and a metabolic precursor of noradrenaline and adrenaline.

dormancy process [GO_0022611]

A developmental process in which dormancy (sometimes called a dormant state) is induced, maintained or broken. Dormancy is a suspension of most physiological activity and growth that can be reactivated. In plants and animals, dormancy may be a response to environmental conditions such as seasonality or extreme heat, drought, or cold. In plants, dormancy may involve the formation of dormant buds, and may be preceded by the senescence of plant parts such as leaves in woody plants or most of the shoot system in herbaceous perennials. The exit from dormancy in vascular plants is marked by resumed growth of buds and/or growth of vascular cambium.

dorsal aorta development [GO_0035907]

The progression of the dorsal aorta over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The dorsal aorta is a blood vessel in a single-pass circulatory system that carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the rest of the body. In a single-pass circulatory system blood passes once through the heart to supply the body once.

dorsal aorta morphogenesis [GO_0035912]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the dorsal aorta are generated and organized. The dorsal aorta is a blood vessel in a single-pass circulatory system that carries oxygenated blood from the gills to the rest of the body. In a single-pass circulatory system blood passes once through the heart to supply the body once.

dorsal/ventral axis specification [GO_0009950]

The establishment, maintenance and elaboration of the dorsal/ventral axis. The dorsal/ventral axis is defined by a line that runs orthogonal to both the anterior/posterior and left/right axes. The dorsal end is defined by the upper or back side of an organism. The ventral end is defined by the lower or front side of an organism.

dorsal/ventral pattern formation [GO_0009953]

The regionalization process in which the areas along the dorsal/ventral axis are established that will lead to differences in cell differentiation. The dorsal/ventral axis is defined by a line that runs orthogonal to both the anterior/posterior and left/right axes. The dorsal end is defined by the upper or back side of an organism. The ventral end is defined by the lower or front side of an organism.

eclosion [GO_0007562]

The emergence of an adult insect from a pupa case.

eclosion rhythm [GO_0008062]

The timing of the emergence of the adult fly from its pupal case, which usually occurs at dawn.

ectoderm development [GO_0007398]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the ectoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In animal embryos, the ectoderm is the outer germ layer of the embryo, formed during gastrulation.

ectoderm formation [GO_0001705]

The formation of ectoderm during gastrulation.

ectodermal cell differentiation [GO_0010668]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features of an ectodermal cell. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.

ectodermal digestive tract development [GO_0007439]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the ectodermal digestive tract over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The ectodermal digestive tract includes those portions that are derived from ectoderm.

ectodermal placode development [GO_0071696]

The progression of an ectodermal placode over time from its initial formation until its mature state. An ectodermal placode is a thickening of the ectoderm that is the primordium of many structures derived from the ectoderm.

ectodermal placode formation [GO_0060788]

The developmental process in which an ectodermal placode forms. An ectodermal placode is a thickening of the ectoderm that is the primordium of many structures derived from the ectoderm.

ectodermal placode morphogenesis [GO_0071697]

The process in which the anatomical structures of an ectodermal placode are generated and organized. An ectodermal placode is a thickening of the ectoderm that is the primordium of many structures derived from the ectoderm.

ectopic germ cell programmed cell death [GO_0035234]

Programmed cell death of an errant germ line cell that is outside the normal migratory path or ectopic to the gonad. This is an important mechanism of regulating germ cell survival within the embryo.

elastic fiber [GO_0071953]

An supramolecular fiber that consists of an insoluble core of polymerized tropoelastin monomers and a surrounding mantle of microfibrils. Elastic fibers provide elasticity and recoiling to tissues and organs, and maintain structural integrity against mechanical strain.

elastic fiber assembly [GO_0048251]

Assembly of the extracellular matrix fibers that enables the matrix to recoil after transient stretching.

embryo development [GO_0009790]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo from its formation until the end of its embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic stage is organism-specific. For example, for mammals, the process would begin with zygote formation and end with birth. For insects, the process would begin at zygote formation and end with larval hatching. For plant zygotic embryos, this would be from zygote formation to the end of seed dormancy. For plant vegetative embryos, this would be from the initial determination of the cell or group of cells to form an embryo until the point when the embryo becomes independent of the parent plant.

embryo development ending in birth or egg hatching [GO_0009792]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an embryo over time, from zygote formation until the end of the embryonic life stage. The end of the embryonic life stage is organism-specific and may be somewhat arbitrary; for mammals it is usually considered to be birth, for insects the hatching of the first instar larva from the eggshell.

embryonic camera-type eye development [GO_0031076]

The process occurring during the embryonic phase whose specific outcome is the progression of the eye over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

embryonic camera-type eye formation [GO_0060900]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of a camera-type eye from unspecified neurectoderm. This process begins with the differentiation of cells that form the optic field and ends when the optic cup has attained its shape.

embryonic camera-type eye morphogenesis [GO_0048596]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the eye are generated and organized during embryonic development.

embryonic cleavage [GO_0040016]

The first few specialized divisions of an activated animal egg.

embryonic development via the syncytial blastoderm [GO_0001700]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryo over time, from zygote formation through syncytial blastoderm to the hatching of the first instar larva. An example of this process is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

embryonic epithelial tube formation [GO_0001838]

The morphogenesis of an embryonic epithelium into a tube-shaped structure.

embryonic eye morphogenesis [GO_0048048]

The process occurring in the embryo by which the anatomical structures of the post-embryonic eye are generated and organized.

embryonic heart tube development [GO_0035050]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the embryonic heart tube over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The heart tube forms as the heart rudiment from the heart field.

embryonic heart tube formation [GO_0003144]

The process that gives rise to the embryonic heart tube. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The embryonic heart tube is an epithelial tube that will give rise to the mature heart.

embryonic heart tube formation via epithelial folding [GO_0003145]

The process that gives rise to the embryonic heart tube by the cells of the heart field along a linear axis.

embryonic heart tube morphogenesis [GO_0003143]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the embryonic heart tube are generated and organized. The embryonic heart tube is an epithelial tube that will give rise to the mature heart.

embryonic morphogenesis [GO_0048598]

The process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized during the embryonic phase. The embryonic phase begins with zygote formation. The end of the embryonic phase is organism-specific. For example, it would be at birth for mammals, larval hatching for insects and seed dormancy in plants.

embryonic organ development [GO_0048568]

Development, taking place during the embryonic phase, of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Development pertains to the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a structure over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

embryonic organ morphogenesis [GO_0048562]

Morphogenesis, during the embryonic phase, of a tissue or tissues that work together to perform a specific function or functions. Morphogenesis is the process in which anatomical structures are generated and organized. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that work together to perform a specific function or functions.

endocardial cell development [GO_0060958]

The progression of an endocardial cell over time, from its formation to the mature cell. An endocardial cell is a specialized endothelial cell that makes up the endocardium portion of the heart.

endocardial cell differentiation [GO_0060956]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of an endocardial cell. An endocardial cell is a specialized endothelial cell that makes up the endocardium portion of the heart. The endocardium is the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endocardial cushion development [GO_0003197]

The progression of a cardiac cushion over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

endocardial cushion formation [GO_0003272]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of an endocardial cushion. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

endocardial cushion morphogenesis [GO_0003203]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the endocardial cushion is generated and organized. The endocardial cushion is a specialized region of mesenchymal cells that will give rise to the heart septa and valves.

endocardial endothelium development [GO_0061147]

The progression of the endocardial endothelium over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endocardium development [GO_0003157]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the endocardium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endocardium formation [GO_0060214]

Formation of the endocardium of the heart. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endocardium morphogenesis [GO_0003160]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the endocardium is generated and organized. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

endochondral bone growth [GO_0003416]

The increase in size or mass of an endochondral bone that contributes to the shaping of the bone.

endochondral bone morphogenesis [GO_0060350]

The process in which bones are generated and organized as a result of the conversion of initial cartilaginous anlage into bone.

endocrine hormone secretion [GO_0060986]

The regulated release of a hormone into the circulatory system.

endocrine process [GO_0050886]

The process that involves the secretion of or response to endocrine hormones. An endocrine hormone is a hormone released into the circulatory system.

endocrine system development [GO_0035270]

Progression of the endocrine system over time, from its formation to a mature structure. The endocrine system is a system of hormones and ductless glands, where the glands release hormones directly into the blood, lymph or other intercellular fluid, and the hormones circulate within the body to affect distant organs. The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathryoids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive glands which include the ovaries and testes.

endoderm development [GO_0007492]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the endoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The endoderm is the innermost germ layer that develops into the gastrointestinal tract, the lungs and associated tissues.

endoderm formation [GO_0001706]

The formation of the endoderm during gastrulation.

endodermal cell differentiation [GO_0035987]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of an endoderm cell, a cell of the inner of the three germ layers of the embryo.

endodermal-mesodermal cell signaling [GO_0003133]

Any process that mediates the transfer of information from endodermal cells to mesodermal cells.

endomembrane system [GO_0012505]

A collection of membranous structures involved in transport within the cell. The main components of the endomembrane system are endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, vesicles, cell membrane and nuclear envelope. Members of the endomembrane system pass materials through each other or though the use of vesicles.

endomembrane system organization [GO_0010256]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the endomembrane system.

endomitotic cell cycle [GO_0007113]

A mitotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are replicated and sister chromatids separate, but spindle formation, nuclear membrane breakdown and nuclear division do not occur, resulting in an increased number of chromosomes in the cell. Note that this term should not be confused with ‘abortive mitotic cell cycle ; GO:0033277’. Although abortive mitosis is sometimes called endomitosis, GO:0033277 refers to a process in which a mitotic spindle forms and chromosome separation begins.

endothelial cell apoptotic process [GO_0072577]

Any apoptotic process in an endothelial cell. An endothelial cell comprises the outermost layer or lining of anatomical structures and can be squamous or cuboidal.

endothelial cell development [GO_0001885]

The progression of an endothelial cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0045446]

The process in which a mesodermal, bone marrow or neural crest cell acquires specialized features of an endothelial cell, a thin flattened cell. A layer of such cells lines the inside surfaces of body cavities, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, making up the endothelium.

endothelial cell morphogenesis [GO_0001886]

The change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs during the differentiation of an endothelial cell.

endothelial cell proliferation [GO_0001935]

The multiplication or reproduction of endothelial cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. Endothelial cells are thin flattened cells which line the inside surfaces of body cavities, blood vessels, and lymph vessels, making up the endothelium.

endothelial tube morphogenesis [GO_0061154]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a tube are generated and organized from an endothelium. Endothelium refers to the layer of cells lining blood vessels, lymphatics, the heart, and serous cavities, and is derived from bone marrow or mesoderm. Corneal endothelium is a special case, derived from neural crest cells.

endothelium development [GO_0003158]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an endothelium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Endothelium refers to the layer of cells lining blood vessels, lymphatics, the heart, and serous cavities, and is derived from bone marrow or mesoderm. Corneal endothelium is a special case, derived from neural crest cells.

energy taxis [GO_0009453]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to physical parameters involved in energy generation, such as light, oxygen, and oxidizable substrates.

enteroendocrine cell differentiation [GO_0035883]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of an enteroendocrine cell. Enteroendocrine cells are hormonally active epithelial cells in the gut that constitute the diffuse neuroendocrine system.

entrainment of circadian clock [GO_0009649]

The synchronization of a circadian rhythm to environmental time cues such as light.

entrainment of circadian clock by photoperiod [GO_0043153]

The synchronization of a circadian rhythm to photoperiod, the intermittent cycle of light (day) and dark (night).

entry into diapause [GO_0055115]

The dormancy process that results in entry into diapause. Diapause is a neurohormonally mediated, dynamic state of low metabolic activity. Associated characteristics of this form of dormancy include reduced morphogenesis, increased resistance to environmental extremes, and altered or reduced behavioral activity. Full expression develops in a species-specific manner, usually in response to a number of environmental stimuli that precede unfavorable conditions. Once diapause has begun, metabolic activity is suppressed even if conditions favorable for development prevail. Once initiated, only certain stimuli are capable of releasing the organism from this state, and this characteristic is essential in distinguishing diapause from hibernation.

entry into reproductive diapause [GO_0055116]

The dormancy process that results in entry into reproductive diapause. Reproductive diapause is a form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.

enucleate erythrocyte development [GO_0048822]

The process aimed at the progression of an enucleate erythrocyte over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.

enucleate erythrocyte differentiation [GO_0043353]

The process in which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specialized features of an erythrocyte without a nucleus. An example of this process is found in Mus musculus.

envelope [GO_0031975]

A multilayered structure surrounding all or part of a cell; encompasses one or more lipid bilayers, and may include a cell wall layer; also includes the space between layers.

enzyme activator activity [GO_0008047]

Binds to and increases the activity of an enzyme. This term should only be used in cases when the regulator directly interacts with the enzyme.

enzyme inhibitor activity [GO_0004857]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of an enzyme. This term should only be used in cases when the regulator directly interacts with the enzyme.

enzyme regulator activity [GO_0030234]

Binds to and modulates the activity of an enzyme. This term should only be used in cases when the regulator directly interacts with the enzyme.

epicardium morphogenesis [GO_1905223]

The developmental process by which an epicardium is generated and organized.

epidermal cell differentiation [GO_0009913]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epidermal cell, any of the cells making up the epidermis.

epidermal cell division [GO_0010481]

Any process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of an epidermal cell, any of the cells making up the epidermis, into daughter cells.

epidermal stem cell homeostasis [GO_0036334]

Any biological process involved in the maintenance of the steady-state number of epidermal stem cells within a population of cells.

epidermis development [GO_0008544]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the epidermis over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The epidermis is the outer epithelial layer of an animal, it may be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (e.g. the cuticle of arthropods) or a complex stratified squamous epithelium, as in the case of many vertebrate species.

epidermis morphogenesis [GO_0048730]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the epidermis are generated and organized. The epidermis is the outer epithelial layer of an animal, it may be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (e.g. the cuticle of arthropods) or a complex stratified squamous epithelium, as in the case of many vertebrate species.

epigenetic maintenance of chromatin in transcription-competent conformation [GO_0045815]

An epigenetic process that capacitates gene expression by remodelling of chromatin by either modifying the chromatin fiber, the nucleosomal histones, or the DNA. This regulation is exemplified by members of the trithorax group, which maintain the active state of homeotic gene transcription. Do not confuse with GO:0140673 ; co-transcriptional chromatin reassembly, which describes the reforming of chromatin after RNA polymerase II passage.

epithelial cell apoptotic process [GO_1904019]

Any apoptotic process in an epithelial cell.

epithelial cell development [GO_0002064]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an epithelial cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. An epithelial cell is a cell usually found in a two-dimensional sheet with a free surface.

epithelial cell differentiation [GO_0030855]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epithelial cell, any of the cells making up an epithelium.

epithelial cell morphogenesis [GO_0003382]

The change in form that occurs when an epithelial cell progresses from its initial formation to its mature state.

epithelial cell morphogenesis involved in gastrulation [GO_0003381]

The change in form that occurs when an epithelial cell progresses from it initial formation to its mature state, contributing to the process of gastrulation.

epithelial cell proliferation [GO_0050673]

The multiplication or reproduction of epithelial cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. Epithelial cells make up the epithelium, the covering of internal and external surfaces of the body, including the lining of vessels and other small cavities. It consists of cells joined by small amounts of cementing substances.

epithelial cell proliferation involved in lung morphogenesis [GO_0060502]

The multiplication or reproduction of epithelial cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population that contributes to the shaping of the lung.

epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO_0001837]

A transition where an epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell.

epithelial tube branching involved in lung morphogenesis [GO_0060441]

The process in which a highly ordered sequence of patterning events generates the branched epithelial tubes of the lung, consisting of reiterated combinations of bud outgrowth, elongation, and dichotomous subdivision of terminal units.

epithelial tube formation [GO_0072175]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of an epithelial tube.

epithelial tube morphogenesis [GO_0060562]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a tube are generated and organized from an epithelium. Epithelial tubes transport gases, liquids and cells from one site to another and form the basic structure of many organs and tissues, with tube shape and organization varying from the single-celled excretory organ in Caenorhabditis elegans to the branching trees of the mammalian kidney and insect tracheal system.

epithelium development [GO_0060429]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an epithelium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. An epithelium is a tissue that covers the internal or external surfaces of an anatomical structure.

equilibrioception [GO_0050957]

The series of events required for an organism to receive an orientational stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Equilibrioception refers to a combination of processes by which an organism can perceive its orientation with respect to gravity. In animals, stimuli come from labyrinth system of the inner ears, monitoring the direction of motion; visual stimuli, with information on orientation and motion; pressure receptors, which tell the organism which body surfaces are in contact with the ground; and proprioceptive cues, which report which parts of the body are in motion.

erythrocyte apoptotic process [GO_1902217]

Any apoptotic process in an erythrocyte.

erythrocyte development [GO_0048821]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an erythrocyte over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

erythrocyte differentiation [GO_0030218]

The process in which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of an erythrocyte.

erythrocyte homeostasis [GO_0034101]

Any process of regulating the production and elimination of erythrocytes within an organism.

esophagus development [GO_1903702]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an esophagus over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

establishment of chromosome localization [GO_0051303]

The directed movement of a chromosome to a specific location.

establishment of Golgi localization [GO_0051683]

The directed movement of the Golgi to a specific location.

establishment of localization [GO_0051234]

Any process that localizes a substance or cellular component. This may occur via movement, tethering or selective degradation.

establishment of localization in cell [GO_0051649]

Any process, occuring in a cell, that localizes a substance or cellular component. This may occur via movement, tethering or selective degradation.

establishment of organelle localization [GO_0051656]

The directed movement of an organelle to a specific location.

establishment of pigment granule localization [GO_0051905]

The directed movement of a pigment granule to a specific location.

establishment of planar polarity [GO_0001736]

Coordinated organization of groups of cells in the plane of an epithelium, such that they all orient to similar coordinates.

establishment of protein localization [GO_0045184]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location.

establishment of protein localization to chromatin [GO_0071169]

The directed movement of a protein to a part of a chromosome that is organized into chromatin.

establishment of protein localization to chromosome [GO_0070199]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location on a chromosome.

establishment of protein localization to extracellular region [GO_0035592]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location within the extracellular region.

establishment of protein localization to membrane [GO_0090150]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location in a membrane.

establishment of protein localization to organelle [GO_0072594]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location on or in an organelle. Encompasses establishment of localization in the membrane or lumen of a membrane-bounded organelle.

establishment of protein localization to plasma membrane [GO_0061951]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location in a plasma membrane.

establishment of protein localization to vacuole [GO_0072666]

The directed movement of a protein to a specific location in a vacuole.

establishment of RNA localization [GO_0051236]

The directed movement of RNA to a specific location.

establishment of tissue polarity [GO_0007164]

Coordinated organization of groups of cells in a tissue, such that they all orient to similar coordinates.

establishment of vesicle localization [GO_0051650]

The directed movement of a vesicle to a specific location.

execution phase of apoptosis [GO_0097194]

A stage of the apoptotic process that starts with the controlled breakdown of the cell through the action of effector caspases or other effector molecules (e.g. cathepsins, calpains etc.). Key steps of the execution phase are rounding-up of the cell, retraction of pseudopodes, reduction of cellular volume (pyknosis), chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation (karyorrhexis), plasma membrane blebbing and fragmentation of the cell into apoptotic bodies. When the execution phase is completed, the cell has died.

exocrine system development [GO_0035272]

Progression of the exocrine system over time, from its formation to a mature structure. The exocrine system is a system of hormones and glands, where the glands secrete straight to a target site via ducts or tubes. The human exocrine system includes the salivary glands, sweat glands and many glands of the digestive system.

exocytic process [GO_0140029]

The cellular processes that contribute to exocytosis.

exocytic vesicle [GO_0070382]

A transport vesicle that mediates transport from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane, and fuses with the plasma membrane to release various cargo molecules, such as proteins or hormones, by exocytosis.

exocytic vesicle membrane [GO_0099501]

The lipid bilayer surrounding an exocytic vesicle.

exocytosis [GO_0006887]

A process of secretion by a cell that results in the release of intracellular molecules (e.g. hormones, matrix proteins) contained within a membrane-bounded vesicle. Exocytosis can occur either by full fusion, when the vesicle collapses into the plasma membrane, or by a kiss-and-run mechanism that involves the formation of a transient contact, a pore, between a granule (for exemple of chromaffin cells) and the plasma membrane. The latter process most of the time leads to only partial secretion of the granule content. Exocytosis begins with steps that prepare vesicles for fusion with the membrane (tethering and docking) and ends when molecules are secreted from the cell.

exosomal secretion [GO_1990182]

The process whereby a membrane-bounded vesicle is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane.

export from cell [GO_0140352]

The directed movement of some substance from a cell, into the extracellular region. This may occur via transport across the plasma membrane or via exocytosis.

Exportin-5 recognizes 3' overhang of pre-miRNA [GO_0003723]

Binding to an RNA molecule or a portion thereof.

external encapsulating structure [GO_0030312]

A structure that lies outside the plasma membrane and surrounds the entire cell or cells. This does not include the periplasmic space. The outer membrane (of gram negative bacteria) or cell wall (of yeast or Gram positive bacteria) are defined as parts of this structure, see ‘external encapsulating structure part’.

external encapsulating structure organization [GO_0045229]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of external structures that lie outside the plasma membrane and surround the entire cell.

external genitalia morphogenesis [GO_0035261]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the external genitalia are generated and organized. The external genitalia are the outer sex organs, such as the penis or vulva in mammals.

extracellular amino acid transport [GO_0006860]

The directed extracellular movement of amino acids.

extracellular carbohydrate transport [GO_0006859]

The directed extracellular movement of carbohydrates.

extracellular exosome [GO_0070062]

A vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Extracellular exosomes, also simply called exosomes, have a diameter of about 40-100 nm.

extracellular exosome assembly [GO_0071971]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an extracellular vesicular exosome, a membrane-bounded vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane. Exosomes are defined by their size, which generally ranges from 30 nm to 100 nm.

extracellular exosome biogenesis [GO_0097734]

The assembly and secretion of an extracellular exosome, a membrane-bounded vesicle that is released into the extracellular region by fusion of the limiting endosomal membrane of a multivesicular body with the plasma membrane.

extracellular matrix [GO_0031012]

A structure lying external to one or more cells, which provides structural support, biochemical or biomechanical cues for cells or tissues.

extracellular matrix assembly [GO_0085029]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of the extracellular matrix.

extracellular matrix binding [GO_0050840]

Binding to a component of the extracellular matrix.

extracellular matrix disassembly [GO_0022617]

A process that results in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix.

extracellular matrix organization [GO_0030198]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an extracellular matrix.

extracellular matrix organization involved in endocardium development [GO_0061148]

A process which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an extracellular matrix of the endocardium. The endocardium is an anatomical structure comprised of an endothelium and an extracellular matrix that forms the innermost layer of tissue of the heart, and lines the heart chambers.

extracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0065010]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a lipid bilayer membrane and occurring outside the cell.

extracellular negative regulation of signal transduction [GO_1900116]

Any negative regulation of signal transduction that takes place in extracellular region.

extracellular non-membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0043264]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, not bounded by a lipid bilayer membrane and occurring outside the cell.

extracellular organelle [GO_0043230]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, occurring outside the cell. Includes, for example, extracellular membrane vesicles (EMVs) and the cellulosomes of anaerobic bacteria and fungi.

extracellular region [GO_0005576]

The space external to the outermost structure of a cell. For cells without external protective or external encapsulating structures this refers to space outside of the plasma membrane. This term covers the host cell environment outside an intracellular parasite. Note that this term is intended to annotate gene products that are not attached to the cell surface. For gene products from multicellular organisms which are secreted from a cell but retained within the organism (i.e. released into the interstitial fluid or blood), consider the cellular component term ‘extracellular space ; GO:0005615’.

extracellular regulation of signal transduction [GO_1900115]

Any regulation of signal transduction that takes place in the extracellular region.

extracellular space [GO_0005615]

That part of a multicellular organism outside the cells proper, usually taken to be outside the plasma membranes, and occupied by fluid. Note that for multicellular organisms, the extracellular space refers to everything outside a cell, but still within the organism (excluding the extracellular matrix). Gene products from a multi-cellular organism that are secreted from a cell into the interstitial fluid or blood can therefore be annotated to this term.

extracellular structure organization [GO_0043062]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of structures in the space external to the outermost structure of a cell. For cells without external protective or external encapsulating structures this refers to space outside of the plasma membrane, and also covers the host cell environment outside an intracellular parasite.

extracellular transport [GO_0006858]

The transport of substances that occurs outside cells.

extracellular vesicle [GO_1903561]

Any vesicle that is part of the extracellular region.

extracellular vesicle biogenesis [GO_0140112]

The assembly and secretion a set of components to form an extracellular vesicule, a membrane-bounded vesicle that is released into the extracellular region. Extracellular vesicles include exosomes, microvesicles and apoptotic bodies, based on the mechanism by which they are released from cells and differentiated based on their size and content.

eye development [GO_0001654]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the eye over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The eye is the organ of sight.

eye morphogenesis [GO_0048592]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the eye are generated and organized.

eye photoreceptor cell development [GO_0042462]

Development of a photoreceptor, a sensory cell in the eye that reacts to the presence of light. They usually contain a pigment that undergoes a chemical change when light is absorbed, thus stimulating a nerve.

eye photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0001754]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a photoreceptor cell, as found in the eye, the primary visual organ of most organisms.

face development [GO_0060324]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a face from an initial condition to its mature state. The face is the ventral division of the head.

face morphogenesis [GO_0060325]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the face are generated and organized. The face is the ventral division of the head.

fat cell apoptotic process [GO_1904606]

Any apoptotic process in a fat cell.

fat cell differentiation [GO_0045444]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an adipocyte, an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.

fat cell proliferation [GO_0070341]

The multiplication or reproduction of fat cells by cell division, resulting in the expansion of their population. A fat cell is an animal connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat.

feeding behavior [GO_0007631]

Behavior associated with the intake of food. See also the biological process term ‘behavior ; GO:0007610’.

female gonad development [GO_0008585]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the female gonad over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

female gonad morphogenesis [GO_0061040]

The process in which a female gonad is generated and organized.

female mating behavior [GO_0060180]

The specific behavior of a female organism that is associated with reproduction.

female sex differentiation [GO_0046660]

The establishment of the sex of a female organism by physical differentiation.

fibrillar collagen trimer [GO_0005583]

Any triple helical collagen trimer that forms fibrils.

fibrinogen binding [GO_0070051]

Binding to fibrinogen, a highly soluble hexameric glycoprotein complex that is found in blood plasma and is converted to fibrin by thrombin in the coagulation cascade.

fibrinogen complex [GO_0005577]

A highly soluble, elongated protein complex found in blood plasma and involved in clot formation. It is converted into fibrin monomer by the action of thrombin. In the mouse, fibrinogen is a hexamer, 46 nm long and 9 nm maximal diameter, containing two sets of nonidentical chains (alpha, beta, and gamma) linked together by disulfide bonds.

fibroblast apoptotic process [GO_0044346]

Any apoptotic process in a fibroblast, a connective tissue cell which secretes an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

fibroblast proliferation [GO_0048144]

The multiplication or reproduction of fibroblast cells, resulting in the expansion of the fibroblast population.

fibroblast proliferation involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0061385]

The multiplication or reproduction of fibroblasts, resulting in the expansion of a fibroblast population that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

flight [GO_0060361]

Self-propelled movement of an organism from one location to another through the air, usually by means of active wing movement.

FN3KRP phosphorylates PsiAm, RibAm [GO_0016301]

Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule. Note that this term encompasses all activities that transfer a single phosphate group; although ATP is by far the most common phosphate donor, reactions using other phosphate donors are included in this term.

foregut morphogenesis [GO_0007440]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the foregut are generated and organized.

formation of anatomical boundary [GO_0048859]

The process in which the limits of an anatomical structure are generated. An anatomical structure is any biological entity that occupies space and is distinguished from its surroundings. Anatomical structures can be macroscopic such as a carpel, or microscopic such as an acrosome.

formation of animal organ boundary [GO_0010160]

The regionalization process that specifies animal organ primordium boundaries resulting in a restriction of organogenesis to a limited spatial domain and keeping the organ separate from surrounding tissues.

formation of primary germ layer [GO_0001704]

The formation of the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm during gastrulation.

formation of translation initiation ternary complex [GO_0001677]

Formation of a complex between aminoacylated initiator methionine tRNA, GTP, and initiation factor 2 (either eIF2 in eukaryotes, or IF2 in prokaryotes). In prokaryotes, fMet-tRNA (initiator) is used rather than Met-tRNA (initiator).

forward locomotion [GO_0043056]

Anterior movement of an organism, following the direction of the head of the animal.

G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0007186]

A series of molecular signals that proceeds with an activated receptor promoting the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha-subunit of an associated heterotrimeric G-protein complex. The GTP-bound activated alpha-G-protein then dissociates from the beta- and gamma-subunits to further transmit the signal within the cell. The pathway begins with receptor-ligand interaction, or for basal GPCR signaling the pathway begins with the receptor activating its G protein in the absence of an agonist, and ends with regulation of a downstream cellular process, e.g. transcription. The pathway can start from the plasma membrane, Golgi or nuclear membrane.

G-protein coupled receptor activity [GO_0004930]

Combining with an extracellular signal and transmitting the signal across the membrane by activating an associated G-protein; promotes the exchange of GDP for GTP on the alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric G-protein complex.

gamete generation [GO_0007276]

The generation and maintenance of gametes in a multicellular organism. A gamete is a haploid reproductive cell.

gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion [GO_0014051]

The regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid by a cell or a tissue. The gamma-aminobutyric acid is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain but is also found in several extraneural tissues.

gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061534]

The regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid by a cell, in which the gamma-aminobutyric acid acts as a neurotransmitter.

gamma-aminobutyric acid transport [GO_0015812]

The directed movement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 4-aminobutyrate), an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in some organisms, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. See also the biological process term ‘neurotransmitter transport ; GO:0006836’.

ganglion development [GO_0061548]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a ganglion over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

ganglion formation [GO_0061554]

The process that gives rise to ganglion. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts.

ganglion morphogenesis [GO_0061552]

The process in which the anatomical structures of ganglion are generated and organized.

gas transport [GO_0015669]

The directed movement of substances that are gaseous in normal living conditions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

gastric acid secretion [GO_0001696]

The regulated release of gastric acid (hydrochloric acid) by parietal or oxyntic cells during digestion.

gastric mucosal blood circulation [GO_1990768]

The flow of blood through the gastric mucosa of an animal, enabling the transport of nutrients and the removal of waste products.

gastrulation [GO_0007369]

A complex and coordinated series of cellular movements that occurs at the end of cleavage during embryonic development of most animals. The details of gastrulation vary from species to species, but usually result in the formation of the three primary germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

gene expression [GO_0010467]

The process in which a gene’s sequence is converted into a mature gene product (protein or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript and its processing, translation and maturation for protein-coding genes.

gene expression involved in extracellular matrix organization [GO_1901148]

Any gene expression that is involved in extracellular matrix organization. Gene expression includes both transcription to produce an RNA transcript, and the translation of that mRNA into protein. Protein maturation is included in gene expression when required to form an active form of a product from an inactive precursor form.

generation of neurons [GO_0048699]

The process in which nerve cells are generated. This includes the production of neuroblasts and their differentiation into neurons.

genitalia development [GO_0048806]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the genitalia over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

genitalia morphogenesis [GO_0035112]

The process in which the anatomical structures of genitalia are generated and organized. The genitalia are the organs of reproduction or generation, external and internal.

germ cell development [GO_0007281]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an immature germ cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure (gamete). A germ cell is any reproductive cell in a multicellular organism.

germ cell nucleus [GO_0043073]

The nucleus of a germ cell, a reproductive cell in multicellular organisms.

germ cell proliferation [GO_0036093]

The multiplication or reproduction of germ cells, reproductive cells in multicellular organisms, resulting in the expansion of a cell population.

germ-line stem cell division [GO_0042078]

The self-renewing division of a germline stem cell to produce a daughter stem cell and a daughter germ cell, which will divide to form the gametes.

gland development [GO_0048732]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a gland over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A gland is an organ specialised for secretion.

gland morphogenesis [GO_0022612]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a gland are generated and organized.

glandular epithelial cell development [GO_0002068]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a glandular epithelial cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A glandular epithelial cell is a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell is a cell found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface exposed to the lumen of a gland.

glandular epithelial cell differentiation [GO_0002067]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a glandular epithelial cell. A glandular epithelial cell is a columnar/cuboidal epithelial cell found in a two dimensional sheet with a free surface exposed to the lumen of a gland.

glial cell apoptotic process [GO_0034349]

Any apoptotic process in a glial cell, a non-neuronal cell of the nervous system.

glial cell development [GO_0021782]

The process aimed at the progression of a glial cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.

glial cell differentiation [GO_0010001]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a glial cell.

glial cell growth [GO_0042065]

Growth of glial cells, non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and participate in signal transmission in the nervous system.

glial cell projection [GO_0097386]

A prolongation or process extending from a glial cell.

glial cell proliferation [GO_0014009]

The multiplication or reproduction of glial cells by cell division, resulting in the expansion of their population. Glial cells exist throughout the nervous system, and include Schwann cells, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes among others.

glial cell-neuron signaling [GO_0150098]

Cell-cell signaling that mediates the transfer of information from a glial cell to a neuron. This signaling has been shown to be mediated by various molecules, depending on which glial cells release them, and in which tissues the signalling occurs, e.g. microglial cell-derived nerve growth factor (NGF) in the retina, or microglial cell-derived superoxide ions in the cerebellum.

glioblast division [GO_0048860]

The process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of a glioblast into daughter cells.

gliogenesis [GO_0042063]

The process that results in the generation of glial cells. This includes the production of glial progenitors and their differentiation into mature glia.

glucagon secretion [GO_0070091]

The regulated release of glucagon from secretory granules in the A (alpha) cells of the pancreas (islets of Langerhans).

glutamate secretion [GO_0014047]

The controlled release of glutamate by a cell. The glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous system.

glutamate secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061535]

The controlled release of glutamate by a cell, in which the glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter.

glycine secretion [GO_0061536]

The controlled release of glycine by a cell.

glycine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061537]

The controlled release of glycine by a cell, in which glycine acts as a neurotransmitter.

glycine transport [GO_0015816]

The directed movement of glycine, aminoethanoic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

glycoprotein biosynthetic process [GO_0009101]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycoproteins, a protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.

glycoprotein metabolic process [GO_0009100]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving glycoproteins, a protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.

glycoprotein transport [GO_0034436]

The directed movement of a glycoprotein, a protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

glycosaminoglycan binding [GO_0005539]

Binding to a glycan (polysaccharide) containing a substantial proportion of aminomonosaccharide residues.

glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process [GO_0006024]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of glycosaminoglycans, any of a group of polysaccharides that contain amino sugars.

glycosaminoglycan metabolic process [GO_0030203]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving glycosaminoglycans, any of a group of polysaccharides that contain amino sugars.

Golgi apparatus [GO_0005794]

A membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelle of the endomembrane system that further processes the core oligosaccharides (e.g. N-glycans) added to proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and packages them into membrane-bound vesicles. The Golgi apparatus operates at the intersection of the secretory, lysosomal, and endocytic pathways. Note that the Golgi apparatus can be located in various places in the cytoplasm. In plants and lower animal cells, the Golgi apparatus exists as many copies of discrete stacks dispersed throughout the cytoplasm, while the Golgi apparatus of interphase mammalian cells is a juxtanuclear, often pericentriolar reticulum, where the discrete Golgi stacks are stitched together to form a compact and interconnected ribbon, sometimes called the Golgi ribbon.

Golgi disassembly [GO_0090166]

A cellular process that results in the breakdown of a Golgi apparatus that contributes to Golgi inheritance.

Golgi inheritance [GO_0048313]

The partitioning of Golgi apparatus between daughter cells at cell division.

Golgi localization [GO_0051645]

Any process in which the Golgi is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within the cell.

Golgi membrane [GO_0000139]

The lipid bilayer surrounding any of the compartments of the Golgi apparatus.

Golgi membrane fusion [GO_0036504]

The joining of two lipid bilayers that surround the Golgi apparatus to form a single Golgi membrane.

Golgi organization [GO_0007030]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the Golgi apparatus.

Golgi reassembly [GO_0090168]

The reformation of the Golgi following its breakdown and partitioning contributing to Golgi inheritance.

Golgi to plasma membrane protein transport [GO_0043001]

The directed movement of proteins from the Golgi to the plasma membrane in transport vesicles that move from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane.

Golgi to plasma membrane transport [GO_0006893]

The directed movement of substances from the Golgi to the plasma membrane in transport vesicles that move from the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane, where they fuse and release their contents by exocytosis.

Golgi to transport vesicle transport [GO_0055108]

The directed movement of proteins from the Golgi to a transport vesicle. Continuously secreted proteins are sorted into transport vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents by exocytosis.

Golgi to vacuole transport [GO_0006896]

The directed movement of substances from the Golgi to the vacuole.

Golgi vesicle transport [GO_0048193]

The directed movement of substances into, out of or within the Golgi apparatus, mediated by vesicles.

Golgi-associated vesicle [GO_0005798]

Any vesicle associated with the Golgi complex and involved in mediating transport within the Golgi or between the Golgi and other parts of the cell. Note that this definition includes vesicles that are transiently associated with the Golgi.

Golgi-associated vesicle membrane [GO_0030660]

The lipid bilayer surrounding a vesicle associated with the Golgi apparatus.

gonad development [GO_0008406]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the gonad over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The gonad is an animal organ that produces gametes; in some species it also produces hormones.

gonad morphogenesis [GO_0035262]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the gonads are generated and organized. A gonad is an animal organ producing gametes, e.g. the testes or the ovary in mammals.

gonadal mesoderm development [GO_0007506]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the gonadal mesoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The gonadal mesoderm is the middle layer of the three primary germ layers of the embryo which will go on to form the gonads of the organism.

gravitaxis [GO_0042332]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to gravity.

grooming behavior [GO_0007625]

The specific behavior of an organism relating to grooming, cleaning and brushing to remove dirt and parasites.

growth [GO_0040007]

The increase in size or mass of an entire organism, a part of an organism or a cell. See also the biological process term ‘cell growth ; GO:0016049’.

growth factor receptor binding [GO_0070851]

Binding to a growth factor receptor.

growth involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_0003241]

Developmental growth that contributes to the shaping of the heart.

hatching [GO_0035188]

The emergence of an immature organism from a protective structure.

hatching behavior [GO_0035187]

The specific behavior of an organism during the emergence from an egg shell. In Drosophila for example, the larva swings its head reiteratively through a semicircular arc, using its mouth hooks to tear apart the chorion in front of it and thus free itself from within the egg shell.

head development [GO_0060322]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a head from an initial condition to its mature state. The head is the anterior-most division of the body.

head morphogenesis [GO_0060323]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the head are generated and organized. The head is the anterior-most division of the body.

heart capillary growth [GO_0003248]

The increase in heart capillaries that accompanies physiological hypertrophy of cardiac muscle.

heart contraction [GO_0060047]

The multicellular organismal process in which the heart decreases in volume in a characteristic way to propel blood through the body.

heart development [GO_0007507]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the heart over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.

heart formation [GO_0060914]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of the heart from unspecified parts. This process begins with the specific processes that contribute to the appearance of the heart field and the arrival of cardiac neural crest to the heart region. The process ends when the structural rudiment is recognizable.

heart growth [GO_0060419]

The increase in size or mass of the heart.

heart morphogenesis [GO_0003007]

The developmental process in which the heart is generated and organized. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.

heart process [GO_0003015]

A circulatory system process carried out by the heart. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood. The heart is a hollow, muscular organ, which, by contracting rhythmically, keeps up the circulation of the blood.

heart rudiment development [GO_0003313]

The progression of the heart rudiment over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The heart rudiment is a cone-like structure that is formed when myocardial progenitor cells of the heart field fuse at the midline. The heart rudiment is the first structure of the heart tube.

heart rudiment formation [GO_0003315]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of the heart rudiment.

heart rudiment morphogenesis [GO_0003314]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the heart rudiment are generated and organized.

hematopoietic or lymphoid organ development [GO_0048534]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of any organ involved in hematopoiesis (also known as hemopoiesis) or lymphoid cell activation over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Such development includes differentiation of resident cell types (stromal cells) and of migratory cell types dependent on the unique microenvironment afforded by the organ for their proper differentiation.

hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation [GO_0002244]

The process in which precursor cell type acquires the specialized features of a hematopoietic progenitor cell, a class of cell types including myeloid progenitor cells and lymphoid progenitor cells.

hematopoietic stem cell differentiation [GO_0060218]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a hematopoietic stem cell. A stem cell is a cell that retains the ability to divide and proliferate throughout life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.

hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis [GO_0061484]

Any biological process involved in the maintenance of the steady-state number of hematopoietic stem cells within a population of cells.

hematopoietic stem cell proliferation [GO_0071425]

The expansion of a hematopoietic stem cell population by cell division. A hematopoietic stem cell is a stem cell from which all cells of the lymphoid and myeloid lineages develop.

hemopoiesis [GO_0030097]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the myeloid and lymphoid derived organ/tissue systems of the blood and other parts of the body over time, from formation to the mature structure. The site of hemopoiesis is variable during development, but occurs primarily in bone marrow or kidney in many adult vertebrates.

heterochromatin [GO_0000792]

A compact and highly condensed form of chromatin that is refractory to transcription.

heterochromatin assembly [GO_0031507]

An epigenetic gene silencing mechanism that involves the assembly of chromatin into heterochromatin, resulting in a chromatin conformation refractory to transcription. This process starts with heterochromatin nucleation, its spreading, and ends with heterochromatin boundary formation.

heterochromatin boundary formation [GO_0033696]

A process that forms a boundary that limits the spreading of heterochromatin along a chromosome.

heterochromatin organization [GO_0070828]

Any process that results in the specification, formation or maintenance of the physical structure of eukaryotic heterochromatin, a compact and highly condensed form of chromatin.

heterocycle biosynthetic process [GO_0018130]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of heterocyclic compounds, those with a cyclic molecular structure and at least two different atoms in the ring (or rings).

heterocycle metabolic process [GO_0046483]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving heterocyclic compounds, those with a cyclic molecular structure and at least two different atoms in the ring (or rings).

heterocyclic compound binding [GO_1901363]

Binding to heterocyclic compound.

hindbrain development [GO_0030902]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the hindbrain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The hindbrain is the posterior of the three primary divisions of the developing chordate brain, or the corresponding part of the adult brain (in vertebrates, includes the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata and controls the autonomic functions and equilibrium).

hindbrain formation [GO_0021576]

The process that gives rise to the hindbrain. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The hindbrain is the region consisting of the medulla, pons and cerebellum. Areas of the hindbrain control motor and autonomic functions.

hindbrain morphogenesis [GO_0021575]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the hindbrain is generated and organized. The hindbrain is the region consisting of the medulla, pons and cerebellum. Areas of the hindbrain control motor and autonomic functions.

hindbrain-spinal cord boundary formation [GO_0021906]

The process whose specific outcome is the formation of the hindbrain-spinal cord boundary.

His-Purkinje system cell development [GO_0060933]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a His-Purkinje cell over time, from its formation to the mature state. These cells form the fibers that regulate cardiac muscle contraction in the ventricles.

His-Purkinje system cell differentiation [GO_0060932]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cell of the His-Purkinje system. These cells form the fibers regulate cardiac muscle contraction in the ventricles.

His-Purkinje system development [GO_0003164]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the His-Purkinje system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The His-Purkinje system receives signals from the AV node and is composed of the fibers that regulate cardiac muscle contraction in the ventricles.

histamine secretion [GO_0001821]

The regulated release of histamine by a cell or tissue. It is formed by decarboxylation of histidine and it acts through receptors in smooth muscle and in secretory systems.

histamine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061538]

The controlled release of histamine by a cell, in which the histamine acts as a neurotransmitter.

histamine transport [GO_0051608]

The directed movement of histamine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Histamine is a physiologically active amine, found in plant and animal tissue and released from mast cells as part of an allergic reaction in humans.

homeostasis of number of cells [GO_0048872]

Any biological process involved in the maintenance of the steady-state number of cells within a population of cells.

homeostatic process [GO_0042592]

Any biological process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state.

hormone binding [GO_0042562]

Binding to an hormone, a naturally occurring substance secreted by specialized cells that affect the metabolism or behavior of cells possessing functional receptors for the hormone. Hormones may be produced by the same, or different, cell as express the receptor.

hormone secretion [GO_0046879]

The regulated release of hormones, substances with a specific regulatory effect on a particular organ or group of cells.

hormone transport [GO_0009914]

The directed movement of hormones into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

hyaluronan biosynthetic process [GO_0030213]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of hyaluronan, the naturally occurring anionic form of hyaluronic acid, any member of a group of glycosaminoglycans, the repeat units of which consist of beta-1,4 linked D-glucuronyl-beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

hyaluronan metabolic process [GO_0030212]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving hyaluronan, the naturally occurring anionic form of hyaluronic acid, any member of a group of glycosaminoglycans, the repeat units of which consist of beta-1,4 linked D-glucuronyl-beta-(1,3)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine.

hyaluronic acid binding [GO_0005540]

Binding to hyaluronic acid, a polymer composed of repeating dimeric units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine.

immune effector process [GO_0002252]

Any process of the immune system that executes a component of an immune response. An effector immune process takes place after its activation.

immune response [GO_0006955]

Any immune system process that functions in the calibrated response of an organism to a potential internal or invasive threat.

immune system development [GO_0002520]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of an organismal system whose objective is to provide calibrated responses by an organism to a potential internal or invasive threat, over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of organs or tissues that work together to carry out a given biological process.

immune system process [GO_0002376]

Any process involved in the development or functioning of the immune system, an organismal system for calibrated responses to potential internal or invasive threats. Note that this term is a direct child of ‘biological_process ; GO:0008150’ because some immune system processes are types of cellular process (GO:0009987), whereas others are types of multicellular organism process (GO:0032501).

import into cell [GO_0098657]

The directed movement of some substance from outside of a cell into a cell. This may occur via transport across the plasma membrane or via endocytosis.

indolalkylamine biosynthetic process [GO_0046219]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of indolalkylamines, indole or indole derivatives containing a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine group.

indolalkylamine metabolic process [GO_0006586]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving indolalkylamines, indole or indole derivatives containing a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine group.

indole alkaloid biosynthetic process [GO_0035835]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of an indole alkaloid, an alkaloid containing an indole skeleton.

indole alkaloid metabolic process [GO_0035834]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving an indole alkaloid, an alkaloid containing an indole skeleton.

indole-containing compound biosynthetic process [GO_0042435]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of compounds that contain an indole (2,3-benzopyrrole) skeleton.

indole-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0042430]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving compounds that contain an indole (2,3-benzopyrrole) skeleton.

inhibition of neuroepithelial cell differentiation [GO_0002085]

Any process that prevents the activation of neuroepithelial cell differentiation. Neuroepithelial cell differentiation is the process in which epiblast cells acquire specialized features of neuroepithelial cells.

inorganic anion transport [GO_0015698]

The directed movement of inorganic anions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Inorganic anions are atoms or small molecules with a negative charge which do not contain carbon in covalent linkage.

insemination [GO_0007320]

The introduction of semen or sperm into the genital tract of a female.

intermediate mesoderm development [GO_0048389]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the intermediate mesoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The intermediate mesoderm is located between the lateral mesoderm and the paraxial mesoderm. It develops into the kidney and gonads.

intermediate mesoderm formation [GO_0048391]

The process that gives rise to the intermediate mesoderm. This process pertains to the initial formation of the structure from unspecified parts.

intermediate mesoderm morphogenesis [GO_0048390]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the intermediate mesoderm are generated and organized.

internal genitalia morphogenesis [GO_0035260]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the internal genitalia are generated and organized. The internal genitalia are the internal sex organs such as the uterine tube, the uterus and the vagina in female mammals, and the testis, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct and prostate in male mammals.

interphase [GO_0051325]

The cell cycle phase following cytokinesis which begins with G1 phase, proceeds through S phase and G2 phase and ends when prophase of meiosis or mitosis begins. During interphase the cell readies itself for meiosis or mitosis and the replication of its DNA occurs. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

intestinal absorption [GO_0050892]

Any process in which nutrients are taken up from the contents of the intestine.

intracellular anatomical structure [GO_0005622]

A component of a cell contained within (but not including) the plasma membrane. In eukaryotes it includes the nucleus and cytoplasm.

intracellular lipid transport [GO_0032365]

The directed movement of lipids within cells.

intracellular membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0043231]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane and occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.

intracellular non-membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0043232]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, not bounded by a lipid bilayer membrane and occurring within the cell. Includes ribosomes, the cytoskeleton and chromosomes.

intracellular organelle [GO_0043229]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, occurring within the cell. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton. Excludes the plasma membrane.

intracellular organelle lumen [GO_0070013]

An organelle lumen that is part of an intracellular organelle.

intracellular protein transport [GO_0006886]

The directed movement of proteins in a cell, including the movement of proteins between specific compartments or structures within a cell, such as organelles of a eukaryotic cell.

intracellular signal transduction [GO_0035556]

The process in which a signal is passed on to downstream components within the cell, which become activated themselves to further propagate the signal and finally trigger a change in the function or state of the cell.

intracellular signal transduction involved in positive regulation of cell growth [GO_1905427]

Any intracellular signal transduction that is involved in positive regulation of cell growth.

intracellular transport [GO_0046907]

The directed movement of substances within a cell.

intracellular vesicle [GO_0097708]

Any vesicle that is part of the intracellular region.

intraciliary transport [GO_0042073]

The bidirectional movement of large protein complexes along microtubules within a cilium, mediated by motor proteins. Note that we deem cilium and microtubule-based flagellum to be equivalent.

intraciliary transport involved in cilium assembly [GO_0035735]

The bidirectional movement of large protein complexes along microtubules within a cilium that contributes to cilium assembly.

intraciliary transport particle [GO_0030990]

A nonmembrane-bound oligomeric protein complex that participates in bidirectional transport of molecules (cargo) along axonemal microtubules. Note that we deem cilia and microtubule-based flagella to be equivalent.

intramembranous bone growth [GO_0098867]

The increase in size or mass of an intramembranous bone that contributes to the shaping of the bone.

intramembranous bone morphogenesis [GO_1904770]

The developmental process by which an intramembranous bone is generated and organized.

intramembranous ossification [GO_0001957]

Direct ossification that occurs within mesenchyme or an accumulation of relatively unspecialized cells. An instance of intramembranous ossification may also be classified as metaplastic; the former classifies based on tissue type location, and the latter based on mechanism/cell division.

ion binding [GO_0043167]

Binding to an ion, a charged atoms or groups of atoms.

ion transport [GO_0006811]

The directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

iris morphogenesis [GO_0061072]

The process in which the iris is generated and organized. The iris is an anatomical structure in the eye whose opening forms the pupil. The iris is responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and the amount of light reaching the retina.

jump response [GO_0007630]

The sudden, usually upward, movement off the ground or other surface through sudden muscular effort in the legs, following exposure to an external stimulus.

karyogamy [GO_0000741]

The creation of a single nucleus from multiple nuclei as a result of fusing the lipid bilayers that surround each nuclei.

ketone biosynthetic process [GO_0042181]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of ketones, a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, CO, and in which the carbonyl group is bonded only to carbon atoms. The general formula for a ketone is RCOR, where R and R are alkyl or aryl groups.

kinase activator activity [GO_0019209]

Binds to and increases the activity of a kinase, an enzyme which catalyzes of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.

kinase inhibitor activity [GO_0019210]

Binds to and stops, prevents or reduces the activity of a kinase.

kinase regulator activity [GO_0019207]

Modulates the activity of a kinase, an enzyme which catalyzes of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.

larval behavior [GO_0030537]

Behavior in a larval form of an organism, an immature organism that must undergo metamorphosis to assume adult characteristics. See also the biological process term ‘behavior ; GO:0007610’.

larval locomotory behavior [GO_0008345]

Locomotory behavior in a larval (immature) organism. See also the biological process term ‘locomotory behavior ; GO:0007626’.

larval turning behavior [GO_0035179]

Fine-tuning the spatial position of a larva in response to variability in their environment. For example, reorientation of a larva in the direction of a food source.

lateral mesoderm development [GO_0048368]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the lateral mesoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

lateral mesoderm formation [GO_0048370]

The process that gives rise to the lateral mesoderm. This process pertains to the initial formation of the structure from unspecified parts.

lateral mesoderm morphogenesis [GO_0048369]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the lateral mesoderm are generated and organized.

leading edge membrane [GO_0031256]

The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding the leading edge of a motile cell.

learning [GO_0007612]

Any process in an organism in which a relatively long-lasting adaptive behavioral change occurs as the result of experience.

learning or memory [GO_0007611]

The acquisition and processing of information and/or the storage and retrieval of this information over time.

left lung development [GO_0060459]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a left lung from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the left lung and ends with the mature structure. The left lung is the lung which is on the left side of the anterior posterior axis looking from a dorsal to ventral aspect.

left lung morphogenesis [GO_0060460]

The process in which anatomical structures of the left lung are generated and organized.

left ventricular cardiac muscle tissue morphogenesis [GO_0003220]

The process in which the anatomical structures of left cardiac ventricle muscle are generated and organized.

lens development in camera-type eye [GO_0002088]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the lens over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The lens is a transparent structure in the eye through which light is focused onto the retina. An example of this process is found in Mus musculus.

lens morphogenesis in camera-type eye [GO_0002089]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the lens are generated and organized. The lens is a transparent structure in the eye through which light is focused onto the retina. An example of this process is found in Mus musculus.

lens placode formation [GO_0001743]

The initial developmental process that will lead to the formation of an eye.

leukocyte apoptotic process [GO_0071887]

Any apoptotic process in a leukocyte, an achromatic cell of the myeloid or lymphoid lineages capable of ameboid movement, found in blood or other tissue. Note that a lymphocyte is a cell of the B cell, T cell, or natural killer cell lineage (CL:0000542).

leukocyte differentiation [GO_0002521]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized hemopoietic precursor cell acquires the specialized features of a leukocyte. A leukocyte is an achromatic cell of the myeloid or lymphoid lineages capable of ameboid movement, found in blood or other tissue.

leukocyte homeostasis [GO_0001776]

The process of regulating the proliferation and elimination of cells of the immune system such that the total number of cells of a particular cell type within a whole or part of an organism is stable over time in the absence of an outside stimulus. Note that this term represents the return of immune system cell levels to stable numbers following an immune response as well as the proliferation and elimination of cells of the immune system required to maintain stable numbers in the absence of an outside stimulus.

leukocyte mediated immunity [GO_0002443]

Any process involved in the carrying out of an immune response by a leukocyte.

leukocyte proliferation [GO_0070661]

The expansion of a leukocyte population by cell division.

ligase activity [GO_0016874]

Catalysis of the joining of two molecules, or two groups within a single molecule, using the energy from the hydrolysis of ATP, a similar triphosphate, or a pH gradient.

ligase activity, forming carbon-nitrogen bonds [GO_0016879]

Catalysis of the joining of two molecules, or two groups within a single molecule, via a carbon-nitrogen bond, with the concomitant hydrolysis of the diphosphate bond in ATP or a similar triphosphate.

ligase regulator activity [GO_0055103]

Binds to and modulates the activity of a ligase.

lipid binding [GO_0008289]

Binding to a lipid.

lipid biosynthetic process [GO_0008610]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent.

lipid catabolic process [GO_0016042]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent.

lipid digestion [GO_0044241]

The whole of the physical, chemical, and biochemical processes carried out by living organisms to break down ingested lipids into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

lipid export from cell [GO_0140353]

The directed movement of a lipid from a cell, into the extracellular region.

lipid import into cell [GO_0140354]

The directed movement of a lipid from outside of a cell into a cell. This may occur via transport across the plasma membrane or via endocytosis.

lipid localization [GO_0010876]

Any process in which a lipid is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.

lipid metabolic process [GO_0006629]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids, compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent. Includes fatty acids; neutral fats, other fatty-acid esters, and soaps; long-chain (fatty) alcohols and waxes; sphingoids and other long-chain bases; glycolipids, phospholipids and sphingolipids; and carotenes, polyprenols, sterols, terpenes and other isoprenoids.

lipid storage [GO_0019915]

The accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of lipids, compounds soluble in organic solvents but insoluble or sparingly soluble in aqueous solvents. Lipid reserves can be accumulated during early developmental stages for mobilization and utilization at later stages of development.

lipid transport [GO_0006869]

The directed movement of lipids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Lipids are compounds soluble in an organic solvent but not, or sparingly, in an aqueous solvent.

localization [GO_0051179]

Any process in which a cell, a substance, or a cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported, tethered to or otherwise maintained in a specific location. In the case of substances, localization may also be achieved via selective degradation.

localization of cell [GO_0051674]

Any process in which a cell is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location.

localization within membrane [GO_0051668]

Any process in which a substance or cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within a membrane.

locomotion [GO_0040011]

Self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another.

locomotion involved in locomotory behavior [GO_0031987]

Self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another in a behavioral context; the aspect of locomotory behavior having to do with movement.

locomotor rhythm [GO_0045475]

The rhythm of the locomotor activity of an organism during its 24 hour activity cycle.

locomotory behavior [GO_0007626]

The specific movement from place to place of an organism in response to external or internal stimuli. Locomotion of a whole organism in a manner dependent upon some combination of that organism’s internal state and external conditions.

locus ceruleus development [GO_0021703]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the locus ceruleus over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The locus ceruleus is a dense cluster of neurons within the dorsorostral pons. This nucleus is the major location of neurons that release norepinephrine throughout the brain, and is responsible for physiological responses to stress and panic.

locus ceruleus formation [GO_0021705]

The process that gives rise to the locus ceruleus. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. In mice, the locus ceruleus is a dense cluster of neurons within the dorsorostral pons. This nucleus is the major location of neurons that release norepinephrine throughout the brain, and is responsible for physiological responses to stress and panic.

locus ceruleus morphogenesis [GO_0021704]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the locus ceruleus is generated and organized. In mice, the locus ceruleus is a dense cluster of neurons within the dorsorostral pons. This nucleus is the major location of neurons that release norepinephrine throughout the brain, and is responsible for physiological responses to stress and panic.

long-term memory [GO_0007616]

The memory process that deals with the storage, retrieval and modification of information a long time (typically weeks, months or years) after receiving that information. This type of memory is typically dependent on gene transcription regulated by second messenger activation.

lung cell differentiation [GO_0060479]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features of a mature cell found in the lung. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate.

lung ciliated cell differentiation [GO_0061141]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a lung ciliated cell. A lung ciliated cell is a specialized lung epithelial cell that contains cilia for moving substances released from lung secretory cells.

lung connective tissue development [GO_0060427]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of lung connective tissue from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of lung connective tissue and ends with the mature structure. The lung connective tissue is a material made up of fibers forming a framework and support structure for the lungs.

lung development [GO_0030324]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the lung over time, from its formation to the mature structure. In all air-breathing vertebrates the lungs are developed from the ventral wall of the oesophagus as a pouch which divides into two sacs. In amphibians and many reptiles the lungs retain very nearly this primitive sac-like character, but in the higher forms the connection with the esophagus becomes elongated into the windpipe and the inner walls of the sacs become more and more divided, until, in the mammals, the air spaces become minutely divided into tubes ending in small air cells, in the walls of which the blood circulates in a fine network of capillaries. In mammals the lungs are more or less divided into lobes, and each lung occupies a separate cavity in the thorax.

lung epithelial cell differentiation [GO_0060487]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of an epithelial cell that contributes to the epithelium of the lung.

lung epithelium development [GO_0060428]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of the lung epithelium from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of lung epithelium and ends with the mature structure. The lung epithelium is the specialized epithelium that lines the inside of the lung.

lung growth [GO_0060437]

The increase in size or mass of a lung. In all air-breathing vertebrates the lungs are developed from the ventral wall of the oesophagus as a pouch which divides into two sacs. In amphibians and many reptiles the lungs retain very nearly this primitive sac-like character, but in the higher forms the connection with the esophagus becomes elongated into the windpipe and the inner walls of the sacs become more and more divided, until, in the mammals, the air spaces become minutely divided into tubes ending in small air cells, in the walls of which the blood circulates in a fine network of capillaries. In mammals the lungs are more or less divided into lobes, and each lung occupies a separate cavity in the thorax.

lung morphogenesis [GO_0060425]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the lung are generated and organized.

lung neuroendocrine cell differentiation [GO_0061100]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuroendocrine cell of the lung epithelium.

lung secretory cell differentiation [GO_0061140]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a lung secretory cell. A lung secretory cell is a specialized epithelial cell of the lung that contains large secretory granules in its apical part.

lung vasculature development [GO_0060426]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a lung vasculature from an initial condition to its mature state. This process begins with the formation of the lung vasculature and ends with the mature structure. The lung vasculature is composed of the tubule structures that carry blood or lymph in the lungs.

M phase [GO_0000279]

A cell cycle phase during which nuclear division occurs, and which is comprises the phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

macromolecule biosynthetic process [GO_0009059]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

macromolecule localization [GO_0033036]

Any process in which a macromolecule is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.

macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0043170]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

macromolecule modification [GO_0043412]

The covalent alteration of one or more monomeric units in a polypeptide, polynucleotide, polysaccharide, or other biological macromolecule, resulting in a change in its properties.

maintenance of location [GO_0051235]

Any process in which a cell, substance or cellular entity, such as a protein complex or organelle, is maintained in a location and prevented from moving elsewhere.

male courtship behavior [GO_0008049]

The behavior of a male, for the purpose of attracting a sexual partner. An example of this process is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

male courtship behavior, veined wing extension [GO_0048065]

The process during courtship where the male insect extends his wings. An example of this process is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

male courtship behavior, veined wing generated song production [GO_0045433]

The process during wing vibration where the male insect produces a species-specific acoustic signal called a love song.

male courtship behavior, veined wing vibration [GO_0016545]

The process during courtship where the male insect vibrates his wings. An example of this is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

male mating behavior [GO_0060179]

The specific behavior of a male organism that is associated with reproduction.

mastication [GO_0071626]

The process of biting and mashing food with the teeth prior to swallowing.

mating [GO_0007618]

The pairwise union of individuals for the purpose of sexual reproduction, ultimately resulting in the formation of zygotes.

mating behavior [GO_0007617]

The behavioral interactions between organisms for the purpose of mating, or sexual reproduction resulting in the formation of zygotes.

medium-term memory [GO_0072375]

The memory process that deals with the storage, retrieval and modification of information received at a time ago that is intermediate between that of short and long term memory (30min - 7hrs in Drosophila melanogaster).

medulla oblongata development [GO_0021550]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the medulla oblongata over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The medulla oblongata lies directly above the spinal cord and controls vital autonomic functions such as digestion, breathing and the control of heart rate.

medulla oblongata formation [GO_0021580]

The process that gives rise to the medulla oblongata. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The medulla oblongata lies directly above the spinal cord and controls vital autonomic functions such as digestion, breathing and the control of heart rate.

medulla oblongata morphogenesis [GO_0021579]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the medulla oblongata is generated and organized. The medulla oblongata lies directly above the spinal cord and controls vital autonomic functions such as digestion, breathing and the control of heart rate.

megakaryocyte development [GO_0035855]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a megakaryocyte cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Megakaryocyte development does not include the steps involved in committing a cell to a megakaryocyte fate. A megakaryocyte is a giant cell 50 to 100 micron in diameter, with a greatly lobulated nucleus, found in the bone marrow.

megakaryocyte differentiation [GO_0030219]

The process in which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of a megakaryocyte.

meiotic cell cycle [GO_0051321]

Progression through the phases of the meiotic cell cycle, in which canonically a cell replicates to produce four offspring with half the chromosomal content of the progenitor cell via two nuclear divisions. Note that this term should not be confused with ‘GO:0140013 ; meiotic nuclear division’. ‘GO:0051321 ; meiotic cell cycle represents the entire mitotic cell cycle, while ‘GO:0140013 meiotic nuclear division’ specifically represents the actual nuclear division step of the mitotic cell cycle.

meiotic cell cycle phase [GO_0098762]

One of the distinct periods or stages into which the meiotic cell cycle is divided. Each phase is characterized by the occurrence of specific biochemical and morphological events. This term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation should be to ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (e.g. mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

meiotic cell cycle process [GO_1903046]

A process that is part of the meiotic cell cycle.

meiotic interphase [GO_0051328]

The cell cycle phase which begins after cytokinesis and ends when meiotic prophase begins. Meiotic cells have an interphase after each meiotic division, but only interphase I involves replication of the cell’s DNA. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

meiotic M phase [GO_0051327]

A cell cycle phase during which nuclear division occurs, and which is comprises the phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and occurs as part of a meiotic cell cycle. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

meiotic nuclear division [GO_0140013]

One of the two nuclear divisions that occur as part of the meiotic cell cycle.

membrane [GO_0016020]

A lipid bilayer along with all the proteins and protein complexes embedded in it an attached to it.

membrane assembly [GO_0071709]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a membrane.

membrane biogenesis [GO_0044091]

A cellular process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a membrane.

membrane bone morphogenesis [GO_0061973]

The process in which bone which forms deep in the organism are generated and organized.

membrane disassembly [GO_0030397]

The controlled breakdown of any cell membrane in the context of a normal process such as autophagy.

membrane docking [GO_0022406]

The initial attachment of a membrane or protein to a target membrane. Docking requires only that the proteins come close enough to interact and adhere.

membrane fission [GO_0090148]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the separation of a single continuous membrane into two membranes.

membrane fusion [GO_0061025]

The membrane organization process that joins two lipid bilayers to form a single membrane.

membrane organization [GO_0061024]

A process which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a membrane. A membrane is a double layer of lipid molecules that encloses all cells, and, in eukaryotes, many organelles; may be a single or double lipid bilayer; also includes associated proteins.

membrane protein complex [GO_0098796]

Any protein complex that is part of a membrane.

membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0043227]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, bounded by a single or double lipid bilayer membrane. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, and vesicles. Excludes the plasma membrane.

membrane-enclosed lumen [GO_0031974]

The enclosed volume within a sealed membrane or between two sealed membranes. Encompasses the volume enclosed by the membranes of a particular organelle, e.g. endoplasmic reticulum lumen, or the space between the two lipid bilayers of a double membrane surrounding an organelle, e.g. nuclear envelope lumen.

memory [GO_0007613]

The activities involved in the mental information processing system that receives (registers), modifies, stores, and retrieves informational stimuli. The main stages involved in the formation and retrieval of memory are encoding (processing of received information by acquisition), storage (building a permanent record of received information as a result of consolidation) and retrieval (calling back the stored information and use it in a suitable way to execute a given task).

mesenchymal cell apoptotic process [GO_0097152]

Any apoptotic process in a mesenchymal cell. A mesenchymal cell is a loosely associated cell that is part of the connective tissue in an organism. Mesenchymal cells give rise to more mature connective tissue cell types.

mesenchymal cell development [GO_0014031]

The process aimed at the progression of a mesenchymal cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to its specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.

mesenchymal cell differentiation [GO_0048762]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a mesenchymal cell. A mesenchymal cell is a loosely associated cell that is part of the connective tissue in an organism. Mesenchymal cells give rise to more mature connective tissue cell types.

mesenchymal cell differentiation involved in bone development [GO_1901706]

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the mesenchymal cells of bone as it progresses from its formation to the mature state.

mesenchymal cell differentiation involved in lung development [GO_0060915]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a mesenchymal cell of the lung. A mesenchymal cell is a loosely associated cell that is part of the connective tissue in an organism. Mesenchymal cells give rise to more mature connective tissue cell types.

mesenchymal cell proliferation [GO_0010463]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a mesenchymal cell population. A mesenchymal cell is a cell that normally gives rise to other cells that are organized as three-dimensional masses, rather than sheets.

mesenchymal cell proliferation involved in lung development [GO_0060916]

The multiplication or reproduction of cells, resulting in the expansion of a mesenchymal cell population that contributes to the progression of the lung over time. A mesenchymal cell is a cell that normally gives rise to other cells that are organized as three-dimensional masses, rather than sheets.

mesenchymal to epithelial transition [GO_0060231]

A transition where a mesenchymal cell establishes apical/basolateral polarity, forms intercellular adhesive junctions, synthesizes basement membrane components and becomes an epithelial cell.

mesenchyme development [GO_0060485]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a mesenchymal tissue over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A mesenchymal tissue is made up of loosely packed stellate cells.

mesenchyme morphogenesis [GO_0072132]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a mesenchymal tissue are generated and organized. A mesenchymal tissue is made up of loosely packed stellate cells.

mesoderm development [GO_0007498]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the mesoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The mesoderm is the middle germ layer that develops into muscle, bone, cartilage, blood and connective tissue.

mesoderm formation [GO_0001707]

The process that gives rise to the mesoderm. This process pertains to the initial formation of the structure from unspecified parts.

mesoderm morphogenesis [GO_0048332]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the mesoderm are generated and organized.

mesodermal cell differentiation [GO_0048333]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a mesoderm cell.

metabolic process [GO_0008152]

The chemical reactions and pathways, including anabolism and catabolism, by which living organisms transform chemical substances. Metabolic processes typically transform small molecules, but also include macromolecular processes such as DNA repair and replication, and protein synthesis and degradation. Note that metabolic processes do not include single functions or processes such as protein-protein interactions, protein-nucleic acids, nor receptor-ligand interactions.

metencephalon development [GO_0022037]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the metencephalon over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

microtubule [GO_0005874]

Any of the long, generally straight, hollow tubes of internal diameter 12-15 nm and external diameter 24 nm found in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells; each consists (usually) of 13 protofilaments of polymeric tubulin, staggered in such a manner that the tubulin monomers are arranged in a helical pattern on the microtubular surface, and with the alpha/beta axes of the tubulin subunits parallel to the long axis of the tubule; exist in equilibrium with pool of tubulin monomers and can be rapidly assembled or disassembled in response to physiological stimuli; concerned with force generation, e.g. in the spindle.

microtubule bundle [GO_0097427]

An arrangement of closely apposed microtubules running parallel to each other.

microtubule bundle formation [GO_0001578]

A process that results in a parallel arrangement of microtubules.

microtubule cytoskeleton [GO_0015630]

The part of the cytoskeleton (the internal framework of a cell) composed of microtubules and associated proteins.

microtubule cytoskeleton organization [GO_0000226]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures comprising microtubules and their associated proteins.

microtubule cytoskeleton organization involved in mitosis [GO_1902850]

Any microtubule cytoskeleton organization that is involved in mitosis.

microtubule depolymerization [GO_0007019]

The removal of tubulin heterodimers from one or both ends of a microtubule.

microtubule nucleation [GO_0007020]

The process in which tubulin alpha-beta heterodimers begin aggregation to form an oligomeric tubulin structure (a microtubule seed). Microtubule nucleation is the initiating step in the formation of a microtubule in the absence of any existing microtubules (‘de novo’ microtubule formation).

microtubule polymerization [GO_0046785]

The addition of tubulin heterodimers to one or both ends of a microtubule.

microtubule polymerization based movement [GO_0099098]

The movement of a cellular component as a result of microtubule polymerization.

microtubule polymerization based protein transport [GO_0099112]

The transport of a protein driven by polymerization of a microtubule to which it is attached.

microtubule polymerization or depolymerization [GO_0031109]

Assembly or disassembly of microtubules by the addition or removal of tubulin heterodimers from a microtubule.

microtubule-based movement [GO_0007018]

A microtubule-based process that results in the movement of organelles, other microtubules, or other cellular components. Examples include motor-driven movement along microtubules and movement driven by polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules.

microtubule-based process [GO_0007017]

Any cellular process that depends upon or alters the microtubule cytoskeleton, that part of the cytoskeleton comprising microtubules and their associated proteins.

microtubule-based protein transport [GO_0099118]

A microtubule-based process that results in the transport of proteins.

microtubule-based transport [GO_0099111]

A microtubule-based process that results in the transport of organelles, other microtubules, or other cellular components. Examples include motor-driven movement along microtubules and movement driven by polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules.

midbrain development [GO_0030901]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the midbrain over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The midbrain is the middle division of the three primary divisions of the developing chordate brain or the corresponding part of the adult brain (in vertebrates, includes a ventral part containing the cerebral peduncles and a dorsal tectum containing the corpora quadrigemina and that surrounds the aqueduct of Sylvius connecting the third and fourth ventricles).

midbrain morphogenesis [GO_1904693]

The developmental process by which a midbrain is generated and organized.

midbrain-hindbrain boundary development [GO_0030917]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The midbrain-hindbrain domain of the embryonic brain is comprised of the mesencephalic vesicle and the first rhombencephalic vesicle at early somitogenesis stages.

midbrain-hindbrain boundary initiation [GO_0021547]

The regionalization process that gives rise to the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The midbrain-hindbrain domain of the embryonic brain is comprised of the mesencephalic vesicle and the first rhombencephalic vesicle at early somitogenesis stages. An organizing center at the boundary patterns the midbrain and hindbrain primordia of the neural plate.

midbrain-hindbrain boundary morphogenesis [GO_0021555]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary is generated and organized. The midbrain-hindbrain domain of the embryonic brain is comprised of the mesencephalic vesicle and the first rhombencephalic vesicle at early somitogenesis stages. An organizing center at the boundary patterns the midbrain and hindbrain primordia of the neural plate.

mitotic cell cycle [GO_0000278]

Progression through the phases of the mitotic cell cycle, the most common eukaryotic cell cycle, which canonically comprises four successive phases called G1, S, G2, and M and includes replication of the genome and the subsequent segregation of chromosomes into daughter cells. In some variant cell cycles nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division, or G1 and G2 phases may be absent. Note that this term should not be confused with ‘GO:0140014 ; mitotic nuclear division’. ‘GO:0000278 ; mitotic cell cycle represents the entire mitotic cell cycle, while ‘GO:0140014 ; mitotic nuclear division’ specifically represents the actual nuclear division step of the mitotic cell cycle.

mitotic cell cycle phase [GO_0098763]

One of the distinct periods or stages into which the mitotic cell cycle is divided. Each phase is characterized by the occurrence of specific biochemical and morphological events. This term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation should be to ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (e.g. mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

mitotic cell cycle process [GO_1903047]

A process that is part of the mitotic cell cycle.

mitotic cell cycle, embryonic [GO_0045448]

The eukaryotic cell cycle in which a cell is duplicated without changing ploidy, occurring in the embryo.

mitotic chromosome condensation [GO_0007076]

The cell cycle process in which chromatin structure is compacted prior to and during mitosis in eukaryotic cells.

mitotic interphase [GO_0051329]

The cell cycle phase following cytokinesis which begins with G1 phase, proceeds through S phase and G2 phase and ends when mitotic prophase begins. During interphase the cell readies itself for mitosis and the replication of its DNA occurs. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

mitotic M phase [GO_0000087]

A cell cycle phase during which nuclear division occurs, and which is comprises the phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase and occurs as part of a mitotic cell cycle. Note that this term should not be used for direct annotation. If you are trying to make an annotation to x phase, it is likely that the correct annotation is ‘regulation of x/y phase transition’ or to a process which occurs during the reported phase (i.e mitotic DNA replication for mitotic S-phase). To capture the phase when a specific location or process is observed, the phase term can be used in an annotation extension (PMID:24885854) applied to a cellular component term (with the relation exists_during) or a biological process term (with the relation happens_during).

mitotic nuclear division [GO_0140014]

A mitotic cell cycle process comprising the steps by which the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell divides; the process involves condensation of chromosomal DNA into a highly compacted form. Canonically, mitosis produces two daughter nuclei whose chromosome complement is identical to that of the mother cell.

mitotic nuclear membrane disassembly [GO_0007077]

The mitotic cell cycle process in which the controlled partial or complete breakdown of the nuclear membranes during occurs during mitosis.

mitotic nuclear membrane organization [GO_0101024]

A mitotic cell cycle process which results in the assembly, arrangement, or disassembly of the nuclear inner or outer membrane during mitosis. This process only occurs in organisms which undergo ‘closed mitosis’ without nuclear breakdown.

mitotic sister chromatid segregation [GO_0000070]

The cell cycle process in which replicated homologous chromosomes are organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two sets during the mitotic cell cycle. Each replicated chromosome, composed of two sister chromatids, aligns at the cell equator, paired with its homologous partner. One homolog of each morphologic type goes into each of the resulting chromosome sets.

modulation of chemical synaptic transmission [GO_0050804]

Any process that modulates the frequency or amplitude of synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse. Amplitude, in this case, refers to the change in postsynaptic membrane potential due to a single instance of synaptic transmission.

molecular function regulator [GO_0098772]

A molecular function regulator regulates the activity of its target via non-covalent binding that does not result in covalent modification to the target. Examples of molecular function regulators include regulatory subunits of multimeric enzymes and channels. Mechanisms of regulation include allosteric changes in the target and competitive inhibition.

molecular transducer activity [GO_0060089]

A compound molecular function in which an effector function is controlled by one or more regulatory components.

molecular_function [GO_0003674]

A molecular process that can be carried out by the action of a single macromolecular machine, usually via direct physical interactions with other molecular entities. Function in this sense denotes an action, or activity, that a gene product (or a complex) performs. These actions are described from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) biochemical activity, and (2) role as a component in a larger system/process. Note that, in addition to forming the root of the molecular function ontology, this term is recommended for use for the annotation of gene products whose molecular function is unknown. When this term is used for annotation, it indicates that no information was available about the molecular function of the gene product annotated as of the date the annotation was made; the evidence code ‘no data’ (ND), is used to indicate this. Despite its name, this is not a type of ‘function’ in the sense typically defined by upper ontologies such as Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). It is instead a BFO:process carried out by a single gene product or complex.

monoamine transport [GO_0015844]

The directed movement of monoamines, organic compounds that contain one amino group that is connected to an aromatic ring by an ethylene group (-CH2-CH2-), into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

monocarboxylic acid transport [GO_0015718]

The directed movement of monocarboxylic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

mononuclear cell differentiation [GO_1903131]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a mononuclear cell.

mononuclear cell proliferation [GO_0032943]

The expansion of a mononuclear cell population by cell division. A mononuclear cell is a leukocyte with a single non-segmented nucleus in the mature form.

morphogenesis of a branching epithelium [GO_0061138]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a branched epithelium are generated and organized.

morphogenesis of a branching structure [GO_0001763]

The process in which the anatomical structures of branches are generated and organized. A branch is a division or offshoot from a main stem. Examples in animals would include blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics and other endothelial or epithelial tubes.

morphogenesis of a polarized epithelium [GO_0001738]

The morphogenetic process in which the anatomical structures of a polarized epithelium are generated and organized. A polarized epithelium is an epithelium where the epithelial sheet is oriented with respect to the planar axis.

morphogenesis of an endothelium [GO_0003159]

The process in which the anatomical structure of an endothelium is generated and organized. Endothelium refers to the layer of cells lining blood vessels, lymphatics, the heart, and serous cavities, and is derived from bone marrow or mesoderm. Corneal endothelium is a special case, derived from neural crest cells.

morphogenesis of an epithelial bud [GO_0060572]

The morphogenetic process in which a bud forms from an epithelial sheet. A bud is a protrusion that forms form the sheet by localized folding.

morphogenesis of an epithelial fold [GO_0060571]

The morphogenetic process in which an epithelial sheet bends along a linear axis.

morphogenesis of an epithelial fold involved in embryonic heart tube formation [GO_0003152]

The morphogenetic process in which an epithelial sheet bends along a linear axis, contributing to embryonic heart tube formation.

morphogenesis of an epithelial sheet [GO_0002011]

The process in which the anatomical structures of an epithelial sheet are generated and organized. An epithelial sheet is a flat surface consisting of closely packed epithelial cells.

morphogenesis of an epithelium [GO_0002009]

The process in which the anatomical structures of epithelia are generated and organized. An epithelium consists of closely packed cells arranged in one or more layers, that covers the outer surfaces of the body or lines any internal cavity or tube.

morphogenesis of embryonic epithelium [GO_0016331]

The process in which the anatomical structures of embryonic epithelia are generated and organized.

motor neuron apoptotic process [GO_0097049]

Any apoptotic process in a motor neuron, an efferent neuron that passes from the central nervous system or a ganglion toward or to a muscle and conducts an impulse that causes movement.

movement of cell or subcellular component [GO_0006928]

The directed, self-propelled movement of a cell or subcellular component without the involvement of an external agent such as a transporter or a pore. Note that in GO cellular components include whole cells (cell is_a cellular component).

mucopolysaccharide metabolic process [GO_1903510]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving mucopolysaccharide.

multi-multicellular organism process [GO_0044706]

A multicellular organism process which involves another multicellular organism of the same or different species.

multi-organism process [GO_0051704]

A biological process which involves another organism of the same or different species.

multi-organism reproductive process [GO_0044703]

A biological process that directly contributes to the process of producing new individuals, involving another organism.

multicellular organism development [GO_0007275]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a multicellular organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult). Note that this term was ‘developmental process’.

multicellular organism growth [GO_0035264]

The increase in size or mass of an entire multicellular organism, as opposed to cell growth.

multicellular organism reproduction [GO_0032504]

The biological process in which new individuals are produced by one or two multicellular organisms. The new individuals inherit some proportion of their genetic material from the parent or parents.

multicellular organismal homeostasis [GO_0048871]

Any process involved in the maintenance of an internal steady state at the level of the multicellular organism.

multicellular organismal movement [GO_0050879]

Any physiological process involved in changing the position of a multicellular organism or an anatomical part of a multicellular organism.

multicellular organismal process [GO_0032501]

Any biological process, occurring at the level of a multicellular organism, pertinent to its function.

multicellular organismal reproductive process [GO_0048609]

The process, occurring above the cellular level, that is pertinent to the reproductive function of a multicellular organism. This includes the integrated processes at the level of tissues and organs.

multicellular organismal response to stress [GO_0033555]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a multicellular organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress. The stress is usually, but not necessarily, exogenous (e.g. temperature, humidity, ionizing radiation).

multicellular organismal signaling [GO_0035637]

The transfer of information occurring at the level of a multicellular organism.

muscle adaptation [GO_0043500]

A process in which muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors. These adaptive events occur in both muscle fibers and associated structures (motoneurons and capillaries), and they involve alterations in regulatory mechanisms, contractile properties and metabolic capacities.

muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_0010657]

A form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases, whose actions dismantle a muscle cell and result in its death. A muscle cell is a mature contractile cell, commonly known as a myocyte, that forms one of three kinds of muscle.

muscle cell cellular homeostasis [GO_0046716]

The cellular homeostatic process that preserves a muscle cell in a stable functional or structural state.

muscle cell development [GO_0055001]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a muscle cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Muscle cell development does not include the steps involved in committing an unspecified cell to the muscle cell fate.

muscle cell differentiation [GO_0042692]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a muscle cell.

muscle cell projection [GO_0036194]

A prolongation or process extending from a muscle cell. A muscle cell is a mature contractile cell, commonly known as a myocyte. This cell has as part of its cytoplasm myofibrils organized in various patterns.

muscle cell projection membrane [GO_0036195]

The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a muscle cell projection.

muscle cell proliferation [GO_0033002]

The expansion of a muscle cell population by cell division.

muscle contraction [GO_0006936]

A process in which force is generated within muscle tissue, resulting in a change in muscle geometry. Force generation involves a chemo-mechanical energy conversion step that is carried out by the actin/myosin complex activity, which generates force through ATP hydrolysis.

muscle hypertrophy [GO_0014896]

The muscle system process that results in enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of a muscle organ due to an increase in the size of its muscle cells. Physiological hypertrophy is a normal process during development (it stops in cardiac muscle after adolescence) and can also be brought on in response to demand. In athletes cardiac and skeletal muscles undergo hypertrophy stimulated by increasing muscle activity on exercise. Smooth muscle cells in the uterus undergo hypertrophy during pregnancy.

muscle organ development [GO_0007517]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the muscle over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The muscle is an organ consisting of a tissue made up of various elongated cells that are specialized to contract and thus to produce movement and mechanical work.

muscle organ morphogenesis [GO_0048644]

The process in which the anatomical structures of muscle are generated and organized.

muscle structure development [GO_0061061]

The progression of a muscle structure over time, from its formation to its mature state. Muscle structures are contractile cells, tissues or organs that are found in multicellular organisms.

muscle system process [GO_0003012]

A organ system process carried out at the level of a muscle. Muscle tissue is composed of contractile cells or fibers.

muscle tissue development [GO_0060537]

The progression of muscle tissue over time, from its initial formation to its mature state. Muscle tissue is a contractile tissue made up of actin and myosin fibers.

muscle tissue morphogenesis [GO_0060415]

The process in which the anatomical structures of muscle tissue are generated and organized. Muscle tissue consists of a set of cells that are part of an organ and carry out a contractive function.

muscular septum morphogenesis [GO_0003150]

The process in which the muscular septum is generated and organized. The muscular septum is the lower part of the ventricular septum.

musculoskeletal movement [GO_0050881]

The movement of an organism or part of an organism using mechanoreceptors, the nervous system, striated muscle and/or the skeletal system.

myeloid cell apoptotic process [GO_0033028]

Any apoptotic process in a myeloid cell, a cell of the monocyte, granulocyte, mast cell, megakaryocyte, or erythroid lineage.

myeloid cell development [GO_0061515]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a myeloid cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

myeloid cell differentiation [GO_0030099]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of any cell of the myeloid leukocyte, megakaryocyte, thrombocyte, or erythrocyte lineages.

myeloid cell homeostasis [GO_0002262]

The process of regulating the proliferation and elimination of myeloid cells such that the total number of myeloid cells within a whole or part of an organism is stable over time in the absence of an outside stimulus.

myeloid leukocyte differentiation [GO_0002573]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized myeloid precursor cell acquires the specialized features of any cell of the myeloid leukocyte lineage.

myeloid leukocyte mediated immunity [GO_0002444]

Any process involved in the carrying out of an immune response by a myeloid leukocyte.

myeloid progenitor cell differentiation [GO_0002318]

The process in which a precursor cell type acquires the specialized features of a myeloid progenitor cell. Myeloid progenitor cells include progenitor cells for any of the myeloid lineages.

myoblast development [GO_0048627]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the myoblast over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.

myoblast differentiation [GO_0045445]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myoblast. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into striated muscle fibers.

myoblast division [GO_0014872]

The process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of a myoblast into daughter cells. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.

myoblast proliferation [GO_0051450]

The multiplication or reproduction of myoblasts, resulting in the expansion of a myoblast cell population. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.

myofibril [GO_0030016]

The contractile element of skeletal and cardiac muscle; a long, highly organized bundle of actin, myosin, and other proteins that contracts by a sliding filament mechanism.

myofibril assembly [GO_0030239]

Formation of myofibrils, the repeating units of striated muscle.

myotome development [GO_0061055]

The progression of the myotome over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The myotome is the portion of the somite that will give rise to muscle.

myotube cell development [GO_0014904]

The process aimed at the progression of a myotube cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.

myotube differentiation [GO_0014902]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myotube cell. Myotube differentiation starts with myoblast fusion and the appearance of specific cell markers (this is the cell development step). Then individual myotubes can fuse to form bigger myotubes and start to contract. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.

negative gravitaxis [GO_0048060]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism away from the source of gravity.

negative regulation of acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0014058]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of acetylcholine.

negative regulation of action potential [GO_0045759]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of action potential creation, propagation or termination. This typically occurs via modulation of the activity or expression of voltage-gated ion channels.

negative regulation of adipose tissue development [GO_1904178]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of adipose tissue development.

negative regulation of amine transport [GO_0051953]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amines into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of amino acid transport [GO_0051956]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amino acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of androgen secretion [GO_2000835]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of androgen secretion.

negative regulation of angiogenesis [GO_0016525]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of angiogenesis.

negative regulation of animal organ morphogenesis [GO_0110111]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of animal organ morphogenesis.

negative regulation of anion transport [GO_1903792]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of anion transport.

negative regulation of aorta morphogenesis [GO_1903848]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of aorta morphogenesis.

negative regulation of aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO_1904830]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation.

negative regulation of apoptotic process [GO_0043066]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process. This term should only be used when it is not possible to determine which phase or subtype of the apoptotic process is negatively regulated by a gene product. Whenever detailed information is available, the more granular children terms should be used.

negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in development [GO_1904746]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic process involved in development. U4PR86 in PMID:22801495 inferred from mutant phenotype

negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in morphogenesis [GO_1902338]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic process involved in morphogenesis.

negative regulation of apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_1902257]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis.

negative regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway [GO_2001234]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic signaling pathway.

negative regulation of artery morphogenesis [GO_1905652]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of artery morphogenesis.

negative regulation of AV node cell action potential [GO_1903950]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of AV node cell action potential.

negative regulation of axo-dendritic protein transport [GO_1905127]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of axo-dendritic protein transport.

negative regulation of axonemal microtubule depolymerization [GO_0007027]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the depolymerization of the specialized microtubules of the axoneme.

negative regulation of backward locomotion [GO_1905851]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of backward locomotion.

negative regulation of behavior [GO_0048521]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of behavior, the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups) to internal or external stimuli.

negative regulation of binding [GO_0051100]

Any process that stops or reduces the rate or extent of binding, the selective interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule.

negative regulation of biological process [GO_0048519]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a biological process. Biological processes are regulated by many means; examples include the control of gene expression, protein modification or interaction with a protein or substrate molecule.

negative regulation of biosynthetic process [GO_0009890]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the rate of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of substances.

negative regulation of bleb assembly [GO_1904171]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of bleb assembly.

negative regulation of blood circulation [GO_1903523]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of blood circulation.

negative regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0110059]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of blood vessel endothelial cell differentiation.

negative regulation of blood vessel morphogenesis [GO_2000181]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of blood vessel morphogenesis.

negative regulation of bone development [GO_1903011]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of bone development.

negative regulation of branching involved in lung morphogenesis [GO_0061048]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the process in which a highly ordered sequence of patterning events generates the branched structures of the lung, consisting of reiterated combinations of bud outgrowth, elongation, and dichotomous subdivision of terminal units.

negative regulation of branching morphogenesis of a nerve [GO_2000173]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of branching morphogenesis of a nerve.

negative regulation of carbohydrate metabolic process [GO_0045912]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrate.

negative regulation of cardiac chamber formation [GO_1901211]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac chamber formation.

negative regulation of cardiac chamber morphogenesis [GO_1901220]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac chamber morphogenesis.

negative regulation of cardiac conduction [GO_1903780]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac conduction.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle adaptation [GO_0010616]

Any process that decreases the rate, extent or frequency of the process in which cardiac muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_0010667]

Any process that decreases the rate or extent of cardiac cell apoptotic process, a form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases whose actions dismantle a cardiac muscle cell and result in its death.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation [GO_2000726]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle cell differentiation.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell myoblast differentiation [GO_2000691]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle cell myoblast differentiation.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle cell proliferation [GO_0060044]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle cell proliferation.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle contraction [GO_0055118]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle contraction.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle fiber development [GO_0055019]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle fiber development.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy [GO_0010614]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart due to an increase in size (not length) of individual cardiac muscle fibers, without cell division.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle myoblast proliferation [GO_0110023]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle myoblast proliferation.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle tissue development [GO_0055026]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle tissue development.

negative regulation of cardiac muscle tissue growth [GO_0055022]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle growth.

negative regulation of cardiac myofibril assembly [GO_1905305]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac myofibril assembly.

negative regulation of cardiac ventricle development [GO_1904413]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac ventricle development.

negative regulation of cardiac ventricle formation [GO_1904943]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac ventricle formation.

negative regulation of cardioblast differentiation [GO_0051892]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardioblast differentiation, the process in which a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.

negative regulation of cardiocyte differentiation [GO_1905208]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cardiocyte differentiation.

negative regulation of cartilage development [GO_0061037]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of cartilage development, the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cartilage over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cartilage is a connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulfate.

negative regulation of catabolic process [GO_0009895]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances.

negative regulation of catalytic activity [GO_0043086]

Any process that stops or reduces the activity of an enzyme.

negative regulation of catecholamine metabolic process [GO_0045914]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving catecholamine.

negative regulation of catecholamine secretion [GO_0033604]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a catecholamine.

negative regulation of CD4 production [GO_0045225]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CD4.

negative regulation of cell adhesion [GO_0007162]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell adhesion.

negative regulation of cell communication [GO_0010648]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of cell communication. Cell communication is the process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

negative regulation of cell cycle [GO_0045786]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle.

negative regulation of cell cycle process [GO_0010948]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of a cellular process that is involved in the progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.

negative regulation of cell death [GO_0060548]

Any process that decreases the rate or frequency of cell death. Cell death is the specific activation or halting of processes within a cell so that its vital functions markedly cease, rather than simply deteriorating gradually over time, which culminates in cell death.

negative regulation of cell development [GO_0010721]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the progression of the cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cell development does not include the steps involved in committing a cell to a specific fate.

negative regulation of cell differentiation [GO_0045596]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell differentiation.

negative regulation of cell division [GO_0051782]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell division.

negative regulation of cell growth [GO_0030308]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, extent or direction of cell growth.

negative regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development [GO_0061052]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the growth of a cardiac muscle cell, where growth contributes to the progression of the cell over time from its initial formation to its mature state.

negative regulation of cell junction assembly [GO_1901889]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell junction assembly.

negative regulation of cell migration [GO_0030336]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell migration.

negative regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation [GO_0010771]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of cell morphogenesis contributing to cell differentiation. Cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation is the change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism’s life history.

negative regulation of cell motility [GO_2000146]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell motility.

negative regulation of cell population proliferation [GO_0008285]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of cell proliferation.

negative regulation of cell projection organization [GO_0031345]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cell projections.

negative regulation of cell proliferation in midbrain [GO_1904934]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell proliferation in midbrain.

negative regulation of cell proliferation involved in compound eye morphogenesis [GO_2000496]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell proliferation involved in compound eye morphogenesis.

negative regulation of cell proliferation involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_2000137]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell proliferation involved in heart morphogenesis.

negative regulation of cellular amide metabolic process [GO_0034249]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving amides.

negative regulation of cellular amine metabolic process [GO_0033239]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving amines.

negative regulation of cellular amino acid biosynthetic process [GO_2000283]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular amino acid biosynthetic process.

negative regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process [GO_0045763]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving amino acid.

negative regulation of cellular biosynthetic process [GO_0031327]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of substances, carried out by individual cells.

negative regulation of cellular component movement [GO_0051271]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the movement of a cellular component.

negative regulation of cellular component organization [GO_0051129]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cell structures, including the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope.

negative regulation of cellular macromolecule biosynthetic process [GO_2000113]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular macromolecule biosynthetic process.

negative regulation of cellular metabolic process [GO_0031324]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances.

negative regulation of cellular process [GO_0048523]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a cellular process, any of those that are carried out at the cellular level, but are not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.

negative regulation of cellular protein metabolic process [GO_0032269]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein, occurring at the level of an individual cell.

negative regulation of cellular response to alcohol [GO_1905958]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to alcohol.

negative regulation of cellular response to caffeine [GO_1901181]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to caffeine.

negative regulation of cellular response to drug [GO_2001039]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to drug.

negative regulation of chondrocyte development [GO_0061182]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a chondrocyte over time, from its commitment to its mature state. Chondrocyte development does not include the steps involved in committing a chondroblast to a chondrocyte fate.

negative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation [GO_0032331]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chondrocyte differentiation.

negative regulation of chromatin assembly or disassembly [GO_0045798]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chromatin assembly or disassembly.

negative regulation of chromatin binding [GO_0035562]

Any process that stops or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chromatin binding. Chromatin binding is the selective interaction with chromatin, the network of fibers of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that make up the chromosomes of the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase.

negative regulation of chromatin organization [GO_1905268]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chromatin organization.

negative regulation of chromosome condensation [GO_1902340]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chromosome condensation.

negative regulation of chromosome organization [GO_2001251]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chromosome organization.

negative regulation of chromosome segregation [GO_0051985]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chromosome segregation, the process in which genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets.

negative regulation of cilium assembly [GO_1902018]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cilium assembly.

negative regulation of circadian rhythm [GO_0042754]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a circadian rhythm behavior.

negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep [GO_0042321]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the duration or quality of sleep, a readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity that occurs periodically in many animals.

negative regulation of collagen binding [GO_0033342]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of collagen binding.

negative regulation of collagen biosynthetic process [GO_0032966]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of collagen, any of a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals.

negative regulation of collagen fibril organization [GO_1904027]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of collagen fibril organization.

negative regulation of collagen metabolic process [GO_0010713]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the metabolism of collagen, any of a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals.

negative regulation of compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0110118]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation.

negative regulation of compound eye retinal cell apoptotic process [GO_1901693]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of compound eye retinal cell apoptotic process.

negative regulation of compound eye retinal cell programmed cell death [GO_0046673]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death that occurs in the compound eye retina.

negative regulation of cytokinesis [GO_0032466]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell, and its separation into two daughter cells.

negative regulation of cytoskeleton organization [GO_0051494]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures.

negative regulation of dermatome development [GO_0061185]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the progression of the dermatome over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The dermatome is the portion of a somite that will form skin.

negative regulation of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch [GO_1905788]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch.

negative regulation of developmental growth [GO_0048640]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of developmental growth.

negative regulation of developmental pigmentation [GO_0048086]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the developmental process that results in the deposition of coloring matter in an organism.

negative regulation of developmental process [GO_0051093]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of development, the biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).

negative regulation of digestive system process [GO_0060457]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of a digestive system process, a physical, chemical, or biochemical process carried out by living organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

negative regulation of DNA binding [GO_0043392]

Any process that stops or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of DNA binding. DNA binding is any process in which a gene product interacts selectively with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

negative regulation of DNA biosynthetic process [GO_2000279]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of DNA biosynthetic process.

negative regulation of DNA metabolic process [GO_0051053]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving DNA.

negative regulation of DNA repair [GO_0045738]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of DNA repair.

negative regulation of dopamine secretion [GO_0033602]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of dopamine.

negative regulation of eclosion [GO_0045804]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of eclosion.

negative regulation of ectoderm development [GO_2000384]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of ectoderm development.

negative regulation of embryonic camera-type eye development [GO_1902864]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of embryonic camera-type eye development.

negative regulation of embryonic development [GO_0045992]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of embryonic development.

negative regulation of endodermal cell differentiation [GO_1903225]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of endodermal cell differentiation.

negative regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process [GO_2000352]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell apoptotic process.

negative regulation of endothelial cell development [GO_1901551]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell development.

negative regulation of endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0045602]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell differentiation.

negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation [GO_0001937]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the rate or extent of endothelial cell proliferation.

negative regulation of endothelial tube morphogenesis [GO_1905955]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial tube morphogenesis.

negative regulation of entry into reproductive diapause [GO_0061964]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the dormancy process that results in entry into reproductive diapause. Reproductive diapause is a form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.

negative regulation of epidermal cell differentiation [GO_0045605]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of epidermal cell differentiation.

negative regulation of epidermis development [GO_0045683]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of epidermis development.

negative regulation of epithelial cell apoptotic process [GO_1904036]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial cell apoptotic process.

negative regulation of epithelial cell differentiation [GO_0030857]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial cell differentiation.

negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation [GO_0050680]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of epithelial cell proliferation.

negative regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved in lung morphogenesis [GO_2000795]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial cell proliferation involved in lung morphogenesis.

negative regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO_0010719]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition where an epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell.

negative regulation of epithelial tube formation [GO_1905277]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial tube formation. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

negative regulation of erythrocyte apoptotic process [GO_1902251]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of erythrocyte apoptotic process.

negative regulation of erythrocyte differentiation [GO_0045647]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of erythrocyte differentiation.

negative regulation of establishment of protein localization [GO_1904950]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of establishment of protein localization.

negative regulation of execution phase of apoptosis [GO_1900118]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of execution phase of apoptosis.

negative regulation of exocytosis [GO_0045920]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of exocytosis.

negative regulation of exosomal secretion [GO_1903542]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of exosomal secretion.

negative regulation of extracellular exosome assembly [GO_1903552]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of extracellular vesicular exosome assembly.

negative regulation of extracellular matrix assembly [GO_1901202]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of extracellular matrix assembly.

negative regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly [GO_0010716]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of extracellular matrix disassembly. Extracellular matrix disassembly is a process that results in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix.

negative regulation of extracellular matrix organization [GO_1903054]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of extracellular matrix organization.

negative regulation of eye photoreceptor cell development [GO_0042480]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of eye photoreceptor development.

negative regulation of fat cell apoptotic process [GO_1904650]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of fat cell apoptotic process.

negative regulation of fat cell differentiation [GO_0045599]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of adipocyte differentiation.

negative regulation of fat cell proliferation [GO_0070345]

Any process that stops or decreases the rate or extent of fat cell proliferation.

negative regulation of feeding behavior [GO_2000252]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of feeding behavior.

negative regulation of female gonad development [GO_2000195]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of female gonad development.

negative regulation of fibroblast apoptotic process [GO_2000270]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of fibroblast apoptotic process.

negative regulation of fibroblast proliferation [GO_0048147]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of multiplication or reproduction of fibroblast cells.

negative regulation of formation of translation initiation ternary complex [GO_1901191]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of formation of translation initiation ternary complex.

negative regulation of forward locomotion [GO_1905849]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of forward locomotion.

negative regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0045744]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway.

negative regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion [GO_0014053]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

negative regulation of gastric acid secretion [GO_0060455]

Any process that decreases the rate frequency or extent of gastric secretion. Gastric secretion is the regulated release of gastric acid (hydrochloric acid) by parietal or oxyntic cells during digestion.

negative regulation of gastric mucosal blood circulation [GO_1904345]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of gastric mucosal blood circulation.

negative regulation of gastrulation [GO_2000542]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of gastrulation.

negative regulation of gene expression [GO_0010629]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene’s coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product (protein or RNA). This term covers any process that negatively regulates the rate of production of a mature gene product, and so includes processes that negatively regulate that rate by reducing the level, stability or availability of intermediates in the process of gene expression. For example, it covers any process that reduces the level, stability or availability of mRNA or circRNA for translation and thereby reduces the rate of production of the encoded protein via translation.

negative regulation of gene expression, epigenetic [GO_0045814]

An epigenetic process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of gene expression by remodelling of chromatin by either modifying the chromatin fiber, the nucleosomal histones, or the DNA.

negative regulation of germ cell proliferation [GO_1905937]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of germ cell proliferation.

negative regulation of glial cell apoptotic process [GO_0034351]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of glial cell apoptotic process.

negative regulation of glial cell differentiation [GO_0045686]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glia cell differentiation.

negative regulation of glial cell proliferation [GO_0060253]

Any process that stops or decreases the rate or extent of glial cell proliferation.

negative regulation of gliogenesis [GO_0014014]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of gliogenesis, the formation of mature glia.

negative regulation of glucagon secretion [GO_0070093]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of glucagon.

negative regulation of glutamate secretion [GO_0014050]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of glutamate.

negative regulation of glutamate secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1903295]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glutamate secretion, neurotransmission. An example of this is Rab3gap1 in mouse (Q80UJ7) in PMID:16782817 inferred from mutant phenotype

negative regulation of glycine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1904625]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glycine secretion, neurotransmission.

negative regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process [GO_0010561]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a glycoprotein, a protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.

negative regulation of glycoprotein metabolic process [GO_1903019]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glycoprotein metabolic process. human serum amyloid P component (SAP) P02743 inhibits viral neuraminidase, NA (exo-alpha-sialidase activity) and thus the metabolism of glycoproteins, demonstrated in Figure 4A PMID:23544079, (IDA), the negative regulation term would be applied to this protein

negative regulation of Golgi to plasma membrane protein transport [GO_0042997]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the transport of proteins from the Golgi to the plasma membrane.

negative regulation of gonad development [GO_1905940]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of gonad development.

negative regulation of growth [GO_0045926]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of growth, the increase in size or mass of all or part of an organism.

negative regulation of heart contraction [GO_0045822]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of heart contraction.

negative regulation of heart growth [GO_0061117]

Any process that decreases the rate or extent of heart growth. Heart growth is the increase in size or mass of the heart.

negative regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation [GO_1901533]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation.

negative regulation of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation [GO_1902037]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

negative regulation of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation [GO_1902034]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation.

negative regulation of hemopoiesis [GO_1903707]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of hemopoiesis. An example of this is Atg7 in mouse (UniProt symbol, Q9D906) in PMID:20080761, inferred from mutant phenotype.

negative regulation of heterochromatin assembly [GO_0031452]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of heterochromatin formation.

negative regulation of heterochromatin organization [GO_0120262]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of heterochromatin organization.

negative regulation of hormone secretion [GO_0046888]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a hormone from a cell.

negative regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process [GO_1900126]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of hyaluronan biosynthetic process.

negative regulation of immune effector process [GO_0002698]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune effector process.

negative regulation of immune response [GO_0050777]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response, the immunological reaction of an organism to an immunogenic stimulus.

negative regulation of immune system process [GO_0002683]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune system process.

negative regulation of intestinal absorption [GO_1904479]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of intestinal absorption.

negative regulation of intracellular lipid transport [GO_0032378]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of lipids within cells.

negative regulation of intracellular protein transport [GO_0090317]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of proteins within cells.

negative regulation of intracellular signal transduction [GO_1902532]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of intracellular signal transduction.

negative regulation of intracellular transport [GO_0032387]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances within cells.

negative regulation of ion transport [GO_0043271]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of kinase activity [GO_0033673]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of kinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.

negative regulation of leukocyte apoptotic process [GO_2000107]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of leukocyte apoptotic process.

negative regulation of leukocyte differentiation [GO_1902106]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of leukocyte differentiation.

negative regulation of leukocyte mediated immunity [GO_0002704]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of leukocyte mediated immunity.

negative regulation of leukocyte proliferation [GO_0070664]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of leukocyte proliferation.

negative regulation of ligase activity [GO_0051352]

Any process that stops or reduces the rate of ligase activity, the catalysis of the ligation of two substances with concomitant breaking of a diphosphate linkage, usually in a nucleoside triphosphate.

negative regulation of lipid binding [GO_1900131]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of lipid binding.

negative regulation of lipid biosynthetic process [GO_0051055]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lipids.

negative regulation of lipid catabolic process [GO_0050995]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lipids.

negative regulation of lipid localization [GO_1905953]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of lipid localization.

negative regulation of lipid metabolic process [GO_0045833]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids.

negative regulation of lipid storage [GO_0010888]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of lipid storage. Lipid storage is the accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of lipids, compounds soluble in organic solvents but insoluble or sparingly soluble in aqueous solvents. Lipid reserves can be accumulated during early developmental stages for mobilization and utilization at later stages of development.

negative regulation of lipid transport [GO_0032369]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of lipids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of locomotion [GO_0040013]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of locomotion of a cell or organism.

negative regulation of locomotion involved in locomotory behavior [GO_0090327]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate, or extent of the self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another in a behavioral context; the aspect of locomotory behavior having to do with movement.

negative regulation of locomotor rhythm [GO_1904060]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of locomotor rhythm.

negative regulation of lung ciliated cell differentiation [GO_1901247]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of lung ciliated cell differentiation.

negative regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process [GO_0010558]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

negative regulation of macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0010605]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

negative regulation of male mating behavior [GO_1902436]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of male mating behavior.

negative regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation [GO_0045653]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of megakaryocyte differentiation.

negative regulation of meiotic cell cycle [GO_0051447]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of progression through the meiotic cell cycle.

negative regulation of meiotic nuclear division [GO_0045835]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of meiosis.

negative regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process [GO_2001054]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process.

negative regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation [GO_0072201]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of mesenchymal cell proliferation. A mesenchymal cell is a cell that normally gives rise to other cells that are organized as three-dimensional masses, rather than sheets.

negative regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation involved in lung development [GO_2000791]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mesenchymal cell proliferation involved in lung development.

negative regulation of mesoderm development [GO_2000381]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm development.

negative regulation of mesoderm formation [GO_1905903]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm formation.

negative regulation of mesodermal cell differentiation [GO_1905771]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mesodermal cell differentiation.

negative regulation of metabolic process [GO_0009892]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways within a cell or an organism.

negative regulation of microtubule binding [GO_1904527]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule binding.

negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization [GO_0007026]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule depolymerization; prevention of depolymerization of a microtubule can result from binding by ‘capping’ at the plus end (e.g. by interaction with another cellular protein of structure) or by exposing microtubules to a stabilizing drug such as taxol.

negative regulation of microtubule nucleation [GO_1905833]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule nucleation.

negative regulation of microtubule polymerization [GO_0031115]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule polymerization.

negative regulation of microtubule polymerization or depolymerization [GO_0031111]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule polymerization or depolymerization.

negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle [GO_0045930]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of progression through the mitotic cell cycle.

negative regulation of mitotic cell cycle, embryonic [GO_0045976]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of progression through the embryonic mitotic cell cycle.

negative regulation of mitotic chromosome condensation [GO_1905213]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mitotic chromosome condensation.

negative regulation of mitotic nuclear division [GO_0045839]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of mitosis. Mitosis is the division of the eukaryotic cell nucleus to produce two daughter nuclei that, usually, contain the identical chromosome complement to their mother.

negative regulation of mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly [GO_1905558]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly.

negative regulation of mitotic sister chromatid segregation [GO_0033048]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sister chromatid segregation during mitosis.

negative regulation of molecular function [GO_0044092]

Any process that stops or reduces the rate or extent of a molecular function, an elemental biological activity occurring at the molecular level, such as catalysis or binding.

negative regulation of mononuclear cell proliferation [GO_0032945]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of mononuclear cell proliferation.

negative regulation of morphogenesis of an epithelium [GO_1905331]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of morphogenesis of an epithelium. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

negative regulation of motor neuron apoptotic process [GO_2000672]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of motor neuron apoptotic process.

negative regulation of multicellular organism growth [GO_0040015]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of growth of an organism to reach its usual body size.

negative regulation of multicellular organismal process [GO_0051241]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.

negative regulation of muscle adaptation [GO_0014745]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle adaptation.

negative regulation of muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_0010656]

Any process that decreases the rate or frequency of muscle cell apoptotic process, a form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases whose actions dismantle a muscle cell and result in its death.

negative regulation of muscle cell differentiation [GO_0051148]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of muscle cell differentiation.

negative regulation of muscle contraction [GO_0045932]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of muscle contraction.

negative regulation of muscle hypertrophy [GO_0014741]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of muscle hypertrophy.

negative regulation of muscle organ development [GO_0048635]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of muscle development.

negative regulation of muscle tissue development [GO_1901862]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of muscle tissue development.

negative regulation of myeloid cell apoptotic process [GO_0033033]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of a myeloid cell apoptotic process.

negative regulation of myeloid cell differentiation [GO_0045638]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of myeloid cell differentiation.

negative regulation of myeloid leukocyte differentiation [GO_0002762]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of myeloid leukocyte differentiation.

negative regulation of myeloid leukocyte mediated immunity [GO_0002887]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of myeloid leukocyte mediated immunity.

negative regulation of myeloid progenitor cell differentiation [GO_1905454]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of myeloid progenitor cell differentiation.

negative regulation of myoblast differentiation [GO_0045662]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast differentiation. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.

negative regulation of myoblast proliferation [GO_2000818]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast proliferation.

negative regulation of myotube differentiation [GO_0010832]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of myotube differentiation. Myotube differentiation is the process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myotube cell. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.

negative regulation of nervous system development [GO_0051961]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of nervous system development, the origin and formation of nervous tissue.

negative regulation of nervous system process [GO_0031645]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a neurophysiological process.

negative regulation of neural crest cell differentiation [GO_1905293]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neural crest cell differentiation.

negative regulation of neural crest formation [GO_0090301]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of neural crest formation. Neural crest formation is the formation of the specialized region of ectoderm between the neural ectoderm (neural plate) and non-neural ectoderm. The neural crest gives rise to the neural crest cells that migrate away from this region as neural tube formation procedes.

negative regulation of neural precursor cell proliferation [GO_2000178]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neural precursor cell proliferation.

negative regulation of neural retina development [GO_0061076]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of neural retina development, the progression of the neural retina over time from its initial formation to the mature structure. The neural retina is the part of the retina that contains neurons and photoreceptor cells.

negative regulation of neuroblast proliferation [GO_0007406]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the proliferation of neuroblasts.

negative regulation of neurogenesis [GO_0050768]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neurogenesis, the generation of cells within the nervous system.

negative regulation of neuromuscular junction development [GO_1904397]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neuromuscular junction development.

negative regulation of neuron apoptotic process [GO_0043524]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process in neurons.

negative regulation of neuron death [GO_1901215]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neuron death.

negative regulation of neuron differentiation [GO_0045665]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neuron differentiation.

negative regulation of neuron projection development [GO_0010977]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of neuron projection development. Neuron projection development is the process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron projection over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A neuron projection is any process extending from a neural cell, such as axons or dendrites (collectively called neurites).

negative regulation of neuronal action potential [GO_1904456]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of neuronal action potential.

negative regulation of neurotransmitter secretion [GO_0046929]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a neurotransmitter.

negative regulation of neurotransmitter transport [GO_0051589]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a neurotransmitter into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_0051172]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nitrogen or nitrogenous compounds.

negative regulation of norepinephrine secretion [GO_0010700]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of norepinephrine.

negative regulation of nuclear division [GO_0051784]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of nuclear division, the partitioning of the nucleus and its genetic information.

negative regulation of nuclear migration along microtubule [GO_1902839]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of nuclear migration along microtubule.

negative regulation of nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0045934]

Any cellular process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.

negative regulation of nucleobase-containing compound transport [GO_0032240]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of organ growth [GO_0046621]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of growth of an organ of an organism.

negative regulation of organelle assembly [GO_1902116]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of organelle assembly.

negative regulation of organelle organization [GO_0010639]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an organelle.

negative regulation of organic acid transport [GO_0032891]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of organic acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of ossification [GO_0030279]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of ossification, the formation of bone or of a bony substance or the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance.

negative regulation of oviposition [GO_1901045]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of oviposition.

negative regulation of oxygen metabolic process [GO_2000375]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of oxygen metabolic process.

negative regulation of peptide hormone secretion [GO_0090278]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the regulated release of a peptide hormone from secretory granules.

negative regulation of peptide secretion [GO_0002792]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of peptide secretion.

negative regulation of pharynx morphogenesis [GO_0110042]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of pharynx morphogenesis.

negative regulation of phosphate metabolic process [GO_0045936]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphates.

negative regulation of phosphorus metabolic process [GO_0010563]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving phosphorus or compounds containing phosphorus.

negative regulation of phosphorylation [GO_0042326]

Any process that stops, prevents or decreases the rate of addition of phosphate groups to a molecule.

negative regulation of photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0046533]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of photoreceptor cell differentiation. An example of this process is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

negative regulation of pigment cell differentiation [GO_0050941]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of pigment cell differentiation.

negative regulation of plasma membrane bounded cell projection assembly [GO_0120033]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of plasma membrane bounded cell projection assembly.

negative regulation of post-embryonic development [GO_0048581]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of post-embryonic development. Post-embryonic development is defined as the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the organism over time, from the completion of embryonic development to the mature structure.

negative regulation of presynapse assembly [GO_1905607]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of presynapse assembly.

negative regulation of programmed cell death [GO_0043069]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death, cell death resulting from activation of endogenous cellular processes.

negative regulation of protein binding [GO_0032091]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein binding.

negative regulation of protein depolymerization [GO_1901880]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein depolymerization.

negative regulation of protein localization [GO_1903828]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a protein localization.

negative regulation of protein localization to cell cortex [GO_1904777]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to cell cortex. An example is cye-1 in C. elegans, UniProt ID O01501 in PMID:17115027.

negative regulation of protein localization to cell leading edge [GO_1905872]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to cell leading edge.

negative regulation of protein localization to cell periphery [GO_1904376]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to cell periphery.

negative regulation of protein localization to cell-cell junction [GO_0150119]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to cell-cell junction.

negative regulation of protein localization to chromatin [GO_0120186]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to chromatin.

negative regulation of protein localization to ciliary membrane [GO_1903568]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to ciliary membrane.

negative regulation of protein localization to cilium [GO_1903565]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to cilium.

negative regulation of protein localization to membrane [GO_1905476]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to membrane.

negative regulation of protein localization to microtubule [GO_1902817]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to microtubule.

negative regulation of protein localization to nucleolus [GO_1904750]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to nucleolus.

negative regulation of protein localization to nucleus [GO_1900181]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to nucleus.

negative regulation of protein localization to plasma membrane [GO_1903077]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to plasma membrane.

negative regulation of protein localization to presynapse [GO_1905385]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein localization to presynapse.

negative regulation of protein metabolic process [GO_0051248]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein.

negative regulation of protein modification by small protein conjugation or removal [GO_1903321]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein modification by small protein conjugation or removal.

negative regulation of protein modification process [GO_0031400]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the covalent alteration of one or more amino acid residues within a protein.

negative regulation of protein polymerization [GO_0032272]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the process of creating protein polymers.

negative regulation of protein secretion [GO_0050709]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of a protein from a cell.

negative regulation of protein transport [GO_0051224]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a protein into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of protein ubiquitination [GO_0031397]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the addition of ubiquitin groups to a protein.

negative regulation of protein-containing complex assembly [GO_0031333]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein complex assembly.

negative regulation of protein-containing complex disassembly [GO_0043242]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of protein complex disassembly, the disaggregation of a protein complex into its constituent components.

negative regulation of receptor binding [GO_1900121]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a protein or other molecule binding to a receptor.

negative regulation of reproductive process [GO_2000242]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of reproductive process.

negative regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange [GO_1903941]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of respiratory gaseous exchange.

negative regulation of response to alcohol [GO_1901420]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to alcohol.

negative regulation of response to biotic stimulus [GO_0002832]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of a response to biotic stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

negative regulation of response to calcium ion [GO_1905946]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to calcium ion.

negative regulation of response to DNA damage stimulus [GO_2001021]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to DNA damage stimulus.

negative regulation of response to drug [GO_2001024]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to drug.

negative regulation of response to external stimulus [GO_0032102]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a response to an external stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

negative regulation of response to extracellular stimulus [GO_0032105]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a response to an extracellular stimulus.

negative regulation of response to nutrient levels [GO_0032108]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a response to nutrient levels.

negative regulation of response to oxidative stress [GO_1902883]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to oxidative stress.

negative regulation of response to stimulus [GO_0048585]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a response to a stimulus. Response to stimulus is a change in state or activity of a cell or an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. Note that this term is in the subset of terms that should not be used for direct gene product annotation. Instead, select a child term or, if no appropriate child term exists, please request a new term. Direct annotations to this term may be amended during annotation QC.

negative regulation of response to wounding [GO_1903035]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of response to wounding.

negative regulation of retina development in camera-type eye [GO_1902867]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of retina development in camera-type eye.

negative regulation of retinal cell programmed cell death [GO_0046671]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death that occurs in the retina.

negative regulation of retrograde trans-synaptic signaling by neuropeptide [GO_1905433]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of retrograde trans-synaptic signaling by neuropeptide.

negative regulation of ribosome biogenesis [GO_0090071]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of ribosome biogenesis. Ribosome biogenesis is the cellular process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of ribosome subunits.

negative regulation of RNA binding [GO_1905215]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of RNA binding.

negative regulation of RNA biosynthetic process [GO_1902679]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of RNA biosynthetic process.

negative regulation of RNA metabolic process [GO_0051253]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving RNA.

negative regulation of saliva secretion [GO_1905747]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of saliva secretion.

negative regulation of sarcomere organization [GO_0060299]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of myofibril assembly by organization of muscle actomyosin into sarcomeres. The sarcomere is the repeating unit of a myofibril in a muscle cell, composed of an array of overlapping thick and thin filaments between two adjacent Z discs.

negative regulation of secretion [GO_0051048]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of a substance from a cell or a tissue.

negative regulation of secretion by cell [GO_1903531]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of secretion by cell.

negative regulation of sensory perception of bitter taste [GO_1904661]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of bitter taste.

negative regulation of sensory perception of pain [GO_1904057]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of pain.

negative regulation of sensory perception of sweet taste [GO_1904657]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sensory perception of sweet taste.

negative regulation of serotonin biosynthetic process [GO_1905628]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of serotonin biosynthetic process.

negative regulation of serotonin secretion [GO_0014063]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of serotonin.

negative regulation of signal transduction [GO_0009968]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of signal transduction.

negative regulation of signaling [GO_0023057]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a signaling process.

negative regulation of signaling receptor activity [GO_2000272]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a signaling receptor activity.

negative regulation of sister chromatid segregation [GO_0033046]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of sister chromatid segregation.

negative regulation of skeletal muscle cell differentiation [GO_2001015]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

negative regulation of skeletal muscle cell proliferation [GO_0014859]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle cell proliferation.

negative regulation of skeletal muscle fiber development [GO_0048744]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle fiber development. Muscle fibers are formed by the maturation of myotubes. They can be classed as slow, intermediate/fast or fast.

negative regulation of skeletal muscle fiber differentiation [GO_1902810]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle fiber differentiation.

negative regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy [GO_1904205]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue development [GO_0048642]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle tissue development.

negative regulation of skeletal muscle tissue growth [GO_0048632]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of skeletal muscle growth.

negative regulation of small molecule metabolic process [GO_0062014]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of a small molecule metabolic process.

negative regulation of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_0034392]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate, or extent of smooth muscle cell apoptotic process.

negative regulation of smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO_0051151]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle cell differentiation.

negative regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation [GO_0048662]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate or extent of smooth muscle cell proliferation.

negative regulation of smooth muscle contraction [GO_0045986]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle contraction.

negative regulation of smooth muscle hypertrophy [GO_1905148]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle hypertrophy.

negative regulation of smooth muscle tissue development [GO_1905900]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of smooth muscle tissue development.

negative regulation of somatic stem cell division [GO_1904676]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of somatic stem cell division.

negative regulation of somatostatin secretion [GO_0090275]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, extent of the regulated release of somatostatin from secretory granules in the D cells of the pancreas.

negative regulation of stem cell differentiation [GO_2000737]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of stem cell differentiation.

negative regulation of stem cell proliferation [GO_2000647]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of stem cell proliferation.

negative regulation of steroid biosynthetic process [GO_0010894]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of steroids, compounds with a 1,2,cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene nucleus.

negative regulation of steroid hormone secretion [GO_2000832]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of steroid hormone secretion.

negative regulation of steroid metabolic process [GO_0045939]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving steroids.

negative regulation of stomach neuroendocrine cell differentiation [GO_0061106]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of the differentiation of a neuroendocrine cell in the stomach.

negative regulation of striated muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_0010664]

Any process that decreases the rate or extent of striated muscle cell apoptotic process, a form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases whose actions dismantle a striated muscle cell and result in its death.

negative regulation of striated muscle cell differentiation [GO_0051154]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of striated muscle cell differentiation.

negative regulation of striated muscle contraction [GO_0045988]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of striated muscle contraction.

negative regulation of striated muscle tissue development [GO_0045843]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of striated muscle development.

negative regulation of sulfur metabolic process [GO_0051175]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving sulfur or compounds containing sulfur.

negative regulation of supramolecular fiber organization [GO_1902904]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of fibril organization. HSPA8, human, P11142 in PMID:23921388 inferred from direct assay to negatively regulate fibrillation of alpha-Syn in vitro

negative regulation of synapse assembly [GO_0051964]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of synapse assembly, the aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a synapse.

negative regulation of synapse organization [GO_1905809]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of synapse organization.

negative regulation of synapse pruning [GO_1905807]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of synapse pruning.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission [GO_0050805]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a synapse.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, cholinergic [GO_0032223]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of cholinergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, dopaminergic [GO_0032227]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of dopaminergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter dopamine.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic [GO_0032229]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of GABAergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic [GO_0051967]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glutamate.

negative regulation of synaptic transmission, glycinergic [GO_0060093]

Any process that stops or decreases the frequency, rate or extent of glycinergic synaptic transmission. Glycinergic synaptic transmission is the process of communication from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse using the neurotransmitter glycine.

negative regulation of syncytium formation by plasma membrane fusion [GO_0034242]

Any process that decreases the frequency, rate or extent of the formation of a syncytium, a mass of cytoplasm containing several nuclei enclosed within a single plasma membrane, by the fusion of the plasma membranes of two or more individual cells.

negative regulation of transferase activity [GO_0051348]

Any process that stops or reduces the rate of transferase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from a donor compound to an acceptor. This term is useful for grouping, but is too general for manual annotation. Please use a child term instead.

negative regulation of translation [GO_0017148]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of proteins by the translation of mRNA or circRNA.

negative regulation of translational elongation [GO_0045900]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of translational elongation.

negative regulation of translational initiation [GO_0045947]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of translational initiation.

negative regulation of translational initiation in response to stress [GO_0032057]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the rate of translation initiation as a result of a stimulus indicating the organism is under stress.

negative regulation of translational termination [GO_0045904]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of translational termination.

negative regulation of transmembrane transport [GO_0034763]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of a solute from one side of a membrane to the other.

negative regulation of transmission of nerve impulse [GO_0051970]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of transmission of a nerve impulse, the sequential electrochemical polarization and depolarization that travels across the membrane of a neuron in response to stimulation.

negative regulation of transport [GO_0051051]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances (such as macromolecules, small molecules, ions) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

negative regulation of tube lumen cavitation [GO_1903133]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of tube lumen cavitation.

negative regulation of turning behavior involved in mating [GO_0061096]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency or extent of turning behavior involved in mating. Turning behavior is the sharp ventral turn performed by the male as he approaches either the hermaphrodite head or tail, whilst trying to locate his partner’s vulva. Turning occurs via a sharp ventral coil of the male’s tail.

negative regulation of ubiquitin-protein transferase activity [GO_0051444]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of ubiquitin transferase activity.

negative regulation of vacuolar transport [GO_1903336]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vacuolar transport.

negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_1905460]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vascular associated smooth muscle cell apoptotic process.

negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO_1905064]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation.

negative regulation of vascular associated smooth muscle cell proliferation [GO_1904706]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

negative regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation [GO_1905563]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vascular endothelial cell proliferation.

negative regulation of vasculature development [GO_1901343]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vasculature development.

negative regulation of vasculogenesis [GO_2001213]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vasculogenesis.

negative regulation of vesicle fusion [GO_0031339]

Any process that stops, prevents, or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vesicle fusion.

negative regulation of vesicle fusion with Golgi apparatus [GO_0106215]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vesicle fustion with Golgi apparatus.

negative regulation of vesicle transport along microtubule [GO_1901609]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of vesicle transport along microtubule.

negative regulation of vessel branching [GO_1905554]

Any process that stops, prevents or reduces the frequency, rate or extent of blood vessel branching.

negative regulation of wound healing [GO_0061045]

Any process that decreases the rate, frequency, or extent of the series of events that restore integrity to a damaged tissue, following an injury.

nephrocyte filtration [GO_0097206]

The process by which hemolymph is filtered based on size and charge through a nephrocyte filtration barrier formed by the basement membrane and nephrocyte diaphragm.

nerve development [GO_0021675]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a nerve over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

nervous system development [GO_0007399]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of nervous tissue over time, from its formation to its mature state.

nervous system process [GO_0050877]

A organ system process carried out by any of the organs or tissues of neurological system.

network-forming collagen trimer [GO_0098642]

A collagen trimer that forms networks.

neural crest cell development [GO_0014032]

The process aimed at the progression of a neural crest cell over time, from initial commitment of the cell to its specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.

neural crest cell differentiation [GO_0014033]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neural crest cell.

neural crest formation [GO_0014029]

The formation of the specialized region of ectoderm between the neural ectoderm (neural plate) and non-neural ectoderm. The neural crest gives rise to the neural crest cells that migrate away from this region as neural tube formation procedes.

neural fold formation [GO_0001842]

The process in which the neural fold is formed. The edges of the neural plate thicken and move up to form a U-shaped structure called the neural groove.

neural keel formation [GO_0014025]

The formation of a thickened region of the neurectoderm that is roughly triangular in cross section. The neural keel develops from the neural plate and develops into the neural rod. Neural keel formation occurs during primary neurulation in teleosts.

neural nucleus development [GO_0048857]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neural nucleus from its initial condition to its mature state. A neural nucleus is an anatomical structure consisting of a discrete aggregate of neuronal soma.

neural plate anterior/posterior regionalization [GO_0021999]

The process that regulates the coordinated growth and differentiation that establishes the non-random anterior-posterior spatial arrangement of the neural plate.

neural plate development [GO_0001840]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the neural plate over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The neural plate is a flat, thickened layer of ectodermal cells. The underlying dorsal mesoderm signals the ectodermal cells above it to elongate into columnar neural plate cells. The neural plate subsequently develops into the neural tube, which gives rise to the central nervous system.

neural plate formation [GO_0021990]

The formation of the flat, thickened layer of ectodermal cells known as the neural plate. The underlying dorsal mesoderm signals the ectodermal cells above it to elongate into columnar neural plate cells. The neural plate subsequently develops into the neural tube, which gives rise to the central nervous system.

neural plate morphogenesis [GO_0001839]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the neural plate are generated and organized. The neural plate is a specialized region of columnar epithelial cells in the dorsal ectoderm that will give rise to nervous system tissue.

neural plate pattern specification [GO_0060896]

The developmental process that results in the creation of defined areas or spaces within the neural plate to which cells respond and eventually are instructed to differentiate.

neural plate regionalization [GO_0060897]

The pattern specification process that results in the subdivision of an axis or axes of the neural plate in space to define an area or volume in which specific patterns of cell differentiation will take place or in which cells interpret a specific environment.

neural precursor cell proliferation [GO_0061351]

The multiplication or reproduction of neural precursor cells, resulting in the expansion of a cell population. A neural precursor cell is either a nervous system stem cell or a nervous system progenitor cell.

neural retina development [GO_0003407]

The progression of the neural retina over time from its initial formation to the mature structure. The neural retina is the part of the retina that contains neurons and photoreceptor cells.

neural rod cavitation [GO_0014024]

The process of rod cavitation, which is the formation of a lumen in the neural rod during primary neurulation, producing the neural tube.

neural rod formation [GO_0014023]

The formation of a solid rod of neurectoderm derived from the neural keel. The neural rod is roughly circular in cross section. Neural rod formation occurs during primary neurulation in teleosts.

neural tube development [GO_0021915]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the neural tube over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The mature structure of the neural tube exists when the tube has been segmented into the forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and spinal cord regions. In addition neural crest has budded away from the epithelium.

neural tube formation [GO_0001841]

The formation of a tube from the flat layer of ectodermal cells known as the neural plate. This will give rise to the central nervous system.

neural tube patterning [GO_0021532]

The regionalization process that regulates the coordinated growth that establishes the non-random spatial arrangement of the neural tube.

neuroblast development [GO_0014019]

The process aimed at the progression of a neuroblast over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific state, to the mature neuroblast. It does not include processes where the neuroblast turns into a glial cell or a neuron.

neuroblast differentiation [GO_0014016]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuroblast. There are at least four stages through which the pluripotent cells of epiblast or blastula become neuroblasts.

neuroblast division [GO_0055057]

The process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of a neuroblast into daughter cells. A neuroblast is any cell that will divide and give rise to a neuron.

neuroblast proliferation [GO_0007405]

The expansion of a neuroblast population by cell division. A neuroblast is any cell that will divide and give rise to a neuron.

neuroendocrine cell differentiation [GO_0061101]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized structural and/or functional features of a neuroendocrine cell. A neuroendocrine cell is a cell that receives input form a neuron which controls the secretion of an endocrine substance.

neuroepithelial cell differentiation [GO_0060563]

The process in which epiblast cells acquire specialized features of neuroepithelial cells.

neurogenesis [GO_0022008]

Generation of cells within the nervous system.

neuromuscular junction [GO_0031594]

The junction between the axon of a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. In response to the arrival of action potentials, the presynaptic button releases molecules of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and transmit the signal to the postsynaptic membrane of the muscle fiber, leading to a change in post-synaptic potential. In vertebrates, the term ‘neuromuscular junction’ is limited to synapses targeting skeletal muscle fibers - all of which are cholinergic and excitatory. Both inhibitory and excitatory neuromuscular junctions exist in invertebrates, utilizing a range of neurotransmitters including glutamate, GABA and 5-HT.

neuromuscular junction development [GO_0007528]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a neuromuscular junction.

neuromuscular junction of myotube [GO_0098523]

A neuromuscular junction in which the target muscle cell is a myotube. In vertebrates, the term ‘neuromuscular junction’ is limited to synapses targeting the myotubes of skeletal muscle (AKA skeletal muscle fibers). Neuromuscular junctions targeting other muscle cell types exist in invertebrates such as the mononucleate somatic muscles of nematodes.

neuromuscular process [GO_0050905]

Any process pertaining to the functions of the nervous and muscular systems of an organism.

neuromuscular process controlling balance [GO_0050885]

Any process that an organism uses to control its balance, the orientation of the organism (or the head of the organism) in relation to the source of gravity. In humans and animals, balance is perceived through visual cues, the labyrinth system of the inner ears and information from skin pressure receptors and muscle and joint receptors.

neuromuscular process controlling posture [GO_0050884]

Any process in which an organism voluntarily modulates its posture, the alignment of its anatomical parts.

neuron apoptotic process [GO_0051402]

Any apoptotic process in a neuron, the basic cellular unit of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the nervous system.

neuron cellular homeostasis [GO_0070050]

The cellular homeostatic process that preserves a neuron in a stable, differentiated functional and structural state.

neuron death [GO_0070997]

The process of cell death in a neuron. This term should not be used for direct annotation. The only exception should be when experimental data (e.g., staining with trypan blue or propidium iodide or use of neuron-specific markers) show that neuron death has occurred, but fail to provide details on death modality (accidental versus programmed). When information is provided on the neuron death mechanism, annotations should be made to the appropriate descendant of ‘cell death’ (such as, but not limited to, GO:0097300 ‘programmed necrotic cell death’ or GO:0006915 ‘apoptotic process’), and the cell type captured as an annotation extension; or the term GO:0051402 ‘neuron apoptotic process’ may be considered, if appropriate.

neuron development [GO_0048666]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.

neuron differentiation [GO_0030182]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron.

neuron projection [GO_0043005]

A prolongation or process extending from a nerve cell, e.g. an axon or dendrite.

neuron projection cytoplasm [GO_0120111]

All of the contents of a plasma membrane bounded neuron projection, excluding the plasma membrane surrounding the projection.

neuron projection development [GO_0031175]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron projection over time, from its formation to the mature structure. A neuron projection is any process extending from a neural cell, such as axons or dendrites (collectively called neurites).

neuron projection membrane [GO_0032589]

The portion of the plasma membrane surrounding a neuron projection.

neuron projection morphogenesis [GO_0048812]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a neuron projection are generated and organized. A neuron projection is any process extending from a neural cell, such as axons or dendrites.

neuron projection organization [GO_0106027]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a prolongation or process extending from a neuron, e.g. an axon, or a dendrite.

neuron-glial cell signaling [GO_0150099]

Cell-cell signaling that mediates the transfer of information from a neuron to a glial cell. This signalling has been shown to be mediated by various molecules released by different types of neurons, e.g. glutamate, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline, acetylcholine, dopamine and adenosine.

neuron-neuron synaptic transmission [GO_0007270]

The process of synaptic transmission from a neuron to another neuron across a synapse.

neuronal action potential [GO_0019228]

An action potential that occurs in a neuron.

neuronal cell body [GO_0043025]

The portion of a neuron that includes the nucleus, but excludes cell projections such as axons and dendrites. Note that ‘cell body’ and ‘cell soma’ are not used in the literature for cells that lack projections, nor for some cells (e.g. yeast with mating projections) that do have projections.

neurotransmitter secretion [GO_0007269]

The regulated release of neurotransmitter from the presynapse into the synaptic cleft via calcium-regulated exocytosis during synaptic transmission. A neurotransmitter is any of a group of substances that are released on excitation from the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron of the central or peripheral nervous system and travel across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit the target cell. Among the many substances that have the properties of a neurotransmitter are acetylcholine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine, glycine, gamma-aminobutyrate, glutamic acid, substance P, enkephalins, endorphins and serotonin.

neurotransmitter transport [GO_0006836]

The directed movement of a neurotransmitter into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Neurotransmitters are any chemical substance that is capable of transmitting (or inhibiting the transmission of) a nerve impulse from a neuron to another cell.

neutral amino acid transport [GO_0015804]

The directed movement of neutral amino acids, amino acids with no net charge, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

nitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_0006807]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving organic or inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen.

nitrogen compound transport [GO_0071705]

The directed movement of nitrogen-containing compounds into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

non-membrane-bounded organelle [GO_0043228]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function, not bounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. Includes ribosomes, the cytoskeleton and chromosomes.

non-membrane-bounded organelle assembly [GO_0140694]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form a non-membrane-bounded organelle.

norepinephrine binding [GO_0051380]

Binding to norepinephrine, (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-aminoethanol), a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla and a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic peripheral nervous system and in some tracts of the CNS. It is also the biosynthetic precursor of epinephrine.

norepinephrine biosynthetic process [GO_0042421]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of norepinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, and a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic peripheral nervous system and in some tracts in the central nervous system. It is also the demethylated biosynthetic precursor of epinephrine.

norepinephrine metabolic process [GO_0042415]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving norepinephrine, a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla, and a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic peripheral nervous system and in some tracts in the central nervous system. It is also the demethylated biosynthetic precursor of epinephrine.

norepinephrine secretion [GO_0048243]

The regulated release of norepinephrine by a cell. Norepinephrine is a catecholamine and it acts as a hormone and as a neurotransmitter of most of the sympathetic nervous system.

norepinephrine transport [GO_0015874]

The directed movement of norepinephrine into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Norepinephrine (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-2-aminoethanol) is a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla and a neurotransmitter in the sympathetic peripheral nervous system and in some tracts of the CNS. It is also the biosynthetic precursor of epinephrine.

notochord development [GO_0030903]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the notochord over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The notochord is a mesoderm-derived structure located ventral of the developing nerve cord. In vertebrates, the notochord serves as a core around which other mesodermal cells form the vertebrae. In the most primitive chordates, which lack vertebrae, the notochord persists as a substitute for a vertebral column.

notochord formation [GO_0014028]

The formation of the notochord from the chordamesoderm. The notochord is composed of large cells packed within a firm connective tissue sheath and is found in all chordates at the ventral surface of the neural tube. In vertebrates, the notochord contributes to the vertebral column.

notochord morphogenesis [GO_0048570]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the notochord are generated and organized. The notochord is a mesoderm-derived structure located ventral of the developing nerve cord. In vertebrates, the notochord serves as a core around which other mesodermal cells form the vertebrae. In the most primitive chordates, which lack vertebrae, the notochord persists as a substitute for a vertebral column.

nuclear chromosome [GO_0000228]

A chromosome that encodes the nuclear genome and is found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell during the cell cycle phases when the nucleus is intact.

nuclear chromosome segregation [GO_0098813]

The process in which genetic material, in the form of nuclear chromosomes, is organized into specific structures and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets. Nuclear chromosome segregation begins with the condensation of chromosomes, includes chromosome separation, and ends when chromosomes have completed movement to the spindle poles.

nuclear division [GO_0000280]

The division of a cell nucleus into two nuclei, with DNA and other nuclear contents distributed between the daughter nuclei.

nuclear envelope [GO_0005635]

The double lipid bilayer enclosing the nucleus and separating its contents from the rest of the cytoplasm; includes the intermembrane space, a gap of width 20-40 nm (also called the perinuclear space).

nuclear envelope organization [GO_0006998]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the nuclear envelope.

nuclear fragmentation involved in apoptotic nuclear change [GO_0030264]

The breakdown of the nucleus into small membrane-bounded compartments, or blebs, each of which contain compacted DNA.

nuclear lumen [GO_0031981]

The volume enclosed by the nuclear inner membrane.

nuclear membrane [GO_0031965]

Either of the lipid bilayers that surround the nucleus and form the nuclear envelope; excludes the intermembrane space.

nuclear membrane biogenesis [GO_0101025]

The process in which a nuclear membrane is synthesized, aggregates, and bonds together.

nuclear membrane disassembly [GO_0051081]

The controlled breakdown of the nuclear membranes, for example during cellular division.

nuclear membrane fusion [GO_0000740]

The joining of 2 or more lipid bilayer membranes that surround the nucleus.

nuclear membrane fusion involved in karyogamy [GO_0048288]

The joining of 2 or more lipid bilayer membranes that surround the nucleus during the creation of a single nucleus from multiple nuclei.

nuclear membrane organization [GO_0071763]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the nuclear inner or outer membrane.

nuclear microtubule [GO_0005880]

Any microtubule in the nucleus of a cell.

nuclear migration [GO_0007097]

The directed movement of the nucleus to a specific location within a cell.

nuclear migration along microtubule [GO_0030473]

The directed movement of the nucleus along microtubules within the cell, mediated by motor proteins.

nuclear outer membrane [GO_0005640]

The outer, i.e. cytoplasm-facing, lipid bilayer of the nuclear envelope; continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell and sometimes studded with ribosomes.

nuclear outer membrane organization [GO_0071764]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the nuclear outer membrane.

nuclear outer membrane-endoplasmic reticulum membrane network [GO_0042175]

The continuous network of membranes encompassing the nuclear outer membrane and the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

nuclear protein-containing complex [GO_0140513]

A stable assembly of two or more macromolecules, i.e. proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates or lipids, in which at least one component is a protein and the constituent parts function together in the nucleus.

nuclear transport [GO_0051169]

The directed movement of substances into, out of, or within the nucleus.

nucleate erythrocyte development [GO_0048823]

The process aimed at the progression of a nucleate erythrocyte over time, from initial commitment of the cell to a specific fate, to the fully functional differentiated cell.

nucleate erythrocyte differentiation [GO_0043363]

The process in which a myeloid precursor cell acquires specializes features of an erythrocyte with a nucleus, as found in non-mammalian vertebrates such as birds.

nucleic acid binding [GO_0003676]

Binding to a nucleic acid.

nucleic acid metabolic process [GO_0090304]

Any cellular metabolic process involving nucleic acids.

nucleic acid transport [GO_0050657]

The directed movement of nucleic acids, single or double-stranded polynucleotides involved in the storage, transmission and transfer of genetic information, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

nucleobase binding [GO_0002054]

Binding to a nucleobase, any of a class of pyrmidines or purines, organic nitrogenous bases.

nucleobase biosynthetic process [GO_0046112]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a nucleobase, a nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleic acid.

nucleobase metabolic process [GO_0009112]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a nucleobase, a nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleic acid, e.g. the purines: adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine and the pyrimidines: cytosine, uracil, thymine.

nucleobase transport [GO_0015851]

The directed movement of a nucleobase, any nitrogenous base that is a constituent of a nucleoside, nucleotide, or nucleic acid, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

nucleobase-containing compound biosynthetic process [GO_0034654]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.

nucleobase-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0006139]

Any cellular metabolic process involving nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids.

nucleobase-containing compound transport [GO_0015931]

The directed movement of nucleobases, nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleic acids, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

nucleobase-containing small molecule metabolic process [GO_0055086]

The cellular chemical reactions and pathways involving a nucleobase-containing small molecule: a nucleobase, a nucleoside, or a nucleotide.

nucleologenesis [GO_0017126]

A cellular process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a nucleolus, a small, dense body one or more of which are present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

nucleolus [GO_0005730]

A small, dense body one or more of which are present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is rich in RNA and protein, is not bounded by a limiting membrane, and is not seen during mitosis. Its prime function is the transcription of the nucleolar DNA into 45S ribosomal-precursor RNA, the processing of this RNA into 5.8S, 18S, and 28S components of ribosomal RNA, and the association of these components with 5S RNA and proteins synthesized outside the nucleolus. This association results in the formation of ribonucleoprotein precursors; these pass into the cytoplasm and mature into the 40S and 60S subunits of the ribosome.

nucleolus organization [GO_0007000]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the nucleolus.

nucleus [GO_0005634]

A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell’s chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent.

nucleus disassembly [GO_1905690]

The disaggregation of a nucleus into its constituent components.

nucleus localization [GO_0051647]

Any process in which the nucleus is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within the cell.

nucleus organization [GO_0006997]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the nucleus.

octopamine secretion [GO_0061539]

The controlled release of octopamine by a cell.

octopamine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0061540]

The controlled release of octopamine by a cell, in which the octopamine acts as a neurotransmitter.

olfactory behavior [GO_0042048]

The behavior of an organism in response to an odor.

olfactory learning [GO_0008355]

Any process in an organism in which a relatively long-lasting adaptive behavioral change occurs in response to (repeated) exposure to an olfactory cue.

one-carbon compound transport [GO_0019755]

The directed movement of one-carbon compounds into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

optic cup morphogenesis involved in camera-type eye development [GO_0002072]

The invagination of the optic vesicle to form two-walled indentations, the optic cups, that will go on to form the retina. This process begins with the optic vesicle becoming a two-walled structure and its subsequent shape changes. It does not include the fate commitment of cells to become the pigmented retina and the neural retina. An example of this process is found in Mus musculus.

optic vesicle formation [GO_0003403]

The developmental process pertaining to the initial formation of the optic vesicle from the lateral wall of the forebrain. This process begins with the specific processes that contribute to the appearance of the vesicle and ends when the vesicle has evaginated. The optic vesicle is the evagination of neurectoderm that precedes formation of the optic cup.

optic vesicle morphogenesis [GO_0003404]

The developmental process pertaining to the formation and shaping of the optic vesicle. This process begins with the specific processes that contribute to the appearance of the vesicle and ends when the vesicle has evaginated. The optic vesicle is the evagination of neurectoderm that precedes formation of the optic cup.

optokinetic behavior [GO_0007634]

The behavior of an organism pertaining to movement of the eyes and of objects in the visual field, as in nystagmus.

optomotor response [GO_0071632]

Eye, head or whole body movements that help to compensate movements of the environment in order to stabilize its image on the retina. In the case of whole body movements, these motor actions may also stabilize a locomotor course in response to some disturbance. Examples include: the optokinetic reflex, which allows human eyes to follow objects in motion while the head remains stationary reflex; the optomotor responses of flying insects and swimming fish.

organ growth [GO_0035265]

The increase in size or mass of an organ. Organs are commonly observed as visibly distinct structures, but may also exist as loosely associated clusters of cells that function together as to perform a specific function.

organellar ribosome [GO_0000313]

A ribosome contained within a subcellular membrane-bounded organelle.

organelle [GO_0043226]

Organized structure of distinctive morphology and function. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton, and prokaryotic structures such as anammoxosomes and pirellulosomes. Excludes the plasma membrane.

organelle assembly [GO_0070925]

The aggregation, arrangement and bonding together of a set of components to form an organelle. An organelle is an organized structure of distinctive morphology and function. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton. Excludes the plasma membrane.

organelle disassembly [GO_1903008]

The disaggregation of an organelle into its constituent components.

organelle envelope [GO_0031967]

A double membrane structure enclosing an organelle, including two lipid bilayers and the region between them. In some cases, an organelle envelope may have more than two membranes.

organelle fission [GO_0048285]

The creation of two or more organelles by division of one organelle.

organelle fusion [GO_0048284]

The creation of a single organelle from two or more organelles.

organelle inheritance [GO_0048308]

The partitioning of organelles between daughter cells at cell division.

organelle localization [GO_0051640]

Any process in which an organelle is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location.

organelle localization by membrane tethering [GO_0140056]

The process by which an organelle membrane interacts with another membrane via molecular tethers that physically bridge the two membranes and attach them to each other.

organelle lumen [GO_0043233]

The internal volume enclosed by the membranes of a particular organelle; includes the volume enclosed by a single organelle membrane, e.g. endoplasmic reticulum lumen, or the volume enclosed by the innermost of the two lipid bilayers of an organelle envelope, e.g. nuclear lumen.

organelle membrane [GO_0031090]

A membrane that is one of the two lipid bilayers of an organelle envelope or the outermost membrane of single membrane bound organelle.

organelle membrane fusion [GO_0090174]

The joining of two lipid bilayers to form a single organelle membrane.

organelle organization [GO_0006996]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of an organelle within a cell. An organelle is an organized structure of distinctive morphology and function. Includes the nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, vacuoles, vesicles, ribosomes and the cytoskeleton. Excludes the plasma membrane.

organelle outer membrane [GO_0031968]

The outer, i.e. cytoplasm-facing in a cellular organelle, lipid bilayer of an organelle envelope.

organelle transport along microtubule [GO_0072384]

The directed movement of an organelle along a microtubule, mediated by motor proteins. This process begins with the attachment of an organelle to a microtubule, and ends when the organelle reaches its final destination.

organic acid binding [GO_0043177]

Binding to an organic acid, any acidic compound containing carbon in covalent linkage.

organic acid biosynthetic process [GO_0016053]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of organic acids, any acidic compound containing carbon in covalent linkage.

organic acid metabolic process [GO_0006082]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving organic acids, any acidic compound containing carbon in covalent linkage.

organic acid transport [GO_0015849]

The directed movement of organic acids, any acidic compound containing carbon in covalent linkage, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

organic anion transport [GO_0015711]

The directed movement of organic anions into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Organic anions are atoms or small molecules with a negative charge which contain carbon in covalent linkage.

organic cation transport [GO_0015695]

The directed movement of organic cations into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. Organic cations are atoms or small molecules with a positive charge which contain carbon in covalent linkage.

organic cyclic compound binding [GO_0097159]

Binding to an organic cyclic compound, any molecular entity that contains carbon arranged in a cyclic molecular structure.

organic cyclic compound biosynthetic process [GO_1901362]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of organic cyclic compound.

organic cyclic compound metabolic process [GO_1901360]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving organic cyclic compound.

organic hydroxy compound biosynthetic process [GO_1901617]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of organic hydroxy compound.

organic hydroxy compound metabolic process [GO_1901615]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving organic hydroxy compound.

organic hydroxy compound transport [GO_0015850]

The directed movement of an organic hydroxy compound (organic alcohol) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. An organic hydroxy compound is an organic compound having at least one hydroxy group attached to a carbon atom.

organic substance biosynthetic process [GO_1901576]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of an organic substance, any molecular entity containing carbon.

organic substance catabolic process [GO_1901575]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of an organic substance, any molecular entity containing carbon.

organic substance metabolic process [GO_0071704]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving an organic substance, any molecular entity containing carbon.

organic substance transport [GO_0071702]

The directed movement of organic substances into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, or within a multicellular organism by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. An organic substance is a molecular entity that contains carbon.

organism emergence from protective structure [GO_0071684]

The developmental process in which an organism emerges from a surrounding protective structure such as an egg or pupa case.

organonitrogen compound biosynthetic process [GO_1901566]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of organonitrogen compound.

organonitrogen compound metabolic process [GO_1901564]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving organonitrogen compound.

ossification [GO_0001503]

The formation of bone or of a bony substance, or the conversion of fibrous tissue or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance. Note that this term does not have a ‘developmental process’ parent because ossification isn’t necessarily developmental, can also occur as part of bone remodeling. Instead use ‘ossification involved in bone maturation ; GO:0043931’.

outer membrane [GO_0019867]

The external membrane of Gram-negative bacteria or certain organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts; freely permeable to most ions and metabolites.

outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_0003151]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the outflow tract are generated and organized. The outflow tract is the portion of the heart through which blood flows into the arteries.

outflow tract septum morphogenesis [GO_0003148]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the outflow tract septum are generated and organized. The outflow tract septum is a partition in the outflow tract.

oviposition [GO_0018991]

The deposition of eggs (either fertilized or not) upon a surface or into a medium such as water.

oxoacid metabolic process [GO_0043436]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving any oxoacid; an oxoacid is a compound which contains oxygen, at least one other element, and at least one hydrogen bound to oxygen, and which produces a conjugate base by loss of positive hydrogen ion(s) (hydrons).

oxygen binding [GO_0019825]

Binding to oxygen (O2).

oxygen metabolic process [GO_0072592]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving diatomic oxygen (O2).

oxygen transport [GO_0015671]

The directed movement of oxygen (O2) into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

paraxial mesoderm development [GO_0048339]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the paraxial mesoderm over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The paraxial mesoderm is the mesoderm located bilaterally adjacent to the notochord and neural tube.

paraxial mesoderm formation [GO_0048341]

The process that gives rise to the paraxial mesoderm. This process pertains to the initial formation of the structure from unspecified parts.

paraxial mesoderm morphogenesis [GO_0048340]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the paraxial mesoderm are generated and organized.

parietal peritoneum development [GO_1904819]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a parietal peritoneum over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

pattern specification process [GO_0007389]

Any developmental process that results in the creation of defined areas or spaces within an organism to which cells respond and eventually are instructed to differentiate.

PC is converted to PS by PTDSS1 [GO_0016740]

Catalysis of the transfer of a group, e.g. a methyl group, glycosyl group, acyl group, phosphorus-containing, or other groups, from one compound (generally regarded as the donor) to another compound (generally regarded as the acceptor). Transferase is the systematic name for any enzyme of EC class 2.

peptide binding [GO_0042277]

Binding to a peptide, an organic compound comprising two or more amino acids linked by peptide bonds.

peptide biosynthetic process [GO_0043043]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of peptides, compounds of 2 or more (but usually less than 100) amino acids where the alpha carboxyl group of one is bound to the alpha amino group of another. This may include the translation of a precursor protein and its subsequent processing into a functional peptide.

peptide hormone binding [GO_0017046]

Binding to a peptide with hormonal activity in animals.

peptide hormone secretion [GO_0030072]

The regulated release of a peptide hormone from a cell.

peptide metabolic process [GO_0006518]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving peptides, compounds of two or more amino acids where the alpha carboxyl group of one is bound to the alpha amino group of another.

peptide secretion [GO_0002790]

The controlled release of a peptide from a cell or a tissue.

peptide transport [GO_0015833]

The directed movement of peptides, compounds of two or more amino acids where the alpha carboxyl group of one is bound to the alpha amino group of another, into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

pericardium development [GO_0060039]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pericardium over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the aorta, vena cava and the pulmonary artery.

pericardium morphogenesis [GO_0003344]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the pericardium is generated and organized.

peripheral nervous system development [GO_0007422]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the peripheral nervous system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The peripheral nervous system is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. Nerves in the PNS connect the central nervous system (CNS) with sensory organs, other organs, muscles, blood vessels and glands.

peripheral nervous system neuron development [GO_0048935]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a neuron whose cell body is located in the peripheral nervous system, from initial commitment of the cell to a neuronal fate, to the fully functional differentiated neuron.

peripheral nervous system neuron differentiation [GO_0048934]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a neuron whose cell body resides in the peripheral nervous system.

peritoneum development [GO_1904820]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a peritoneum over time, from its formation to the mature structure.

pharyngeal arch artery morphogenesis [GO_0061626]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a pharyngeal arch artery is generated and organized. The pharyngeal arch arteries are a series of six paired embryological vascular structures, the development of which give rise to several major arteries, such as the stapedial artery, the middle meningeal artery, the internal carotid artery and the pulmonary artery.

pharyngeal gland morphogenesis [GO_1905905]

The developmental process by which a pharyngeal gland is generated and organized.

pharyngeal system development [GO_0060037]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pharyngeal system over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The pharyngeal system is a transient embryonic complex that is specific to vertebrates. It comprises the pharyngeal arches, bulges of tissues of mesoderm and neural crest derivation through which pass nerves and pharyngeal arch arteries. The arches are separated internally by pharyngeal pouches, evaginations of foregut endoderm, and externally by pharyngeal clefts, invaginations of surface ectoderm. The development of the system ends when the stucture it contributes to are forming: the thymus, thyroid, parathyroids, maxilla, mandible, aortic arch, cardiac outflow tract, external and middle ear.

pharynx development [GO_0060465]

The biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of a pharynx from an initial condition to its mature state. The pharynx is the part of the digestive system immediately posterior to the mouth.

pharynx morphogenesis [GO_0110040]

The process in which the anatomical structures of the pharynx are generated and organized.

phenol-containing compound biosynthetic process [GO_0046189]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a phenol, any compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups directly attached to an aromatic carbon ring.

phenol-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0018958]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a phenol, any compound containing one or more hydroxyl groups directly attached to an aromatic carbon ring. Note that phenol metabolism is not included as a child of ‘xenobiotic metabolism’ because although it is synthesized industrially, phenol is also found naturally in animal wastes and other organic materials. It is often formed by the activity of microorganisms, which can chemically modify a variety of xenobiotic and naturally occurring phenolic compounds.

phosphate ion binding [GO_0042301]

Binding to a phosphate ion.

phosphate ion transport [GO_0006817]

The directed movement of phosphate into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

phosphate-containing compound metabolic process [GO_0006796]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving the phosphate group, the anion or salt of any phosphoric acid.

phosphorus metabolic process [GO_0006793]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving the nonmetallic element phosphorus or compounds that contain phosphorus, usually in the form of a phosphate group (PO4).

phosphorylation [GO_0016310]

The process of introducing a phosphate group into a molecule, usually with the formation of a phosphoric ester, a phosphoric anhydride or a phosphoric amide.

photoperiodism [GO_0009648]

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of an organism (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of detection of, or exposure to, a period of light or dark of a given length, measured relative to a particular duration known as the ‘critical day length’. The critical day length varies between species.

photoreceptor cell development [GO_0042461]

Development of a photoreceptor, a cell that responds to incident electromagnetic radiation, particularly visible light.

photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0046530]

The specialization of organization of a photoreceptor, a cell that responds to incident electromagnetic radiation, particularly visible light. An example of this process is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

photoreceptor cell morphogenesis [GO_0008594]

The process in which the structures of a photoreceptor cell are generated and organized. This process occurs while the initially relatively unspecialized cell is acquiring the specialized features of a photoreceptor cell, a sensory cell that reacts to the presence of light. An example of this is found in Drosophila melanogaster.

phototaxis [GO_0042331]

The directed movement of a motile cell or organism in response to light.

phototransduction [GO_0007602]

The sequence of reactions within a cell required to convert absorbed photons into a molecular signal.

phototransduction, visible light [GO_0007603]

The sequence of reactions within a cell required to convert absorbed photons from visible light into a molecular signal. A visible light stimulus is electromagnetic radiation that can be perceived visually by an organism; for organisms lacking a visual system, this can be defined as light with a wavelength within the range 380 to 780 nm.

physiological cardiac muscle hypertrophy [GO_0003301]

The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart muscle due to an increase in size of cardiac muscle cells without cell division. This process contributes to the developmental growth of the heart.

physiological muscle hypertrophy [GO_0003298]

The enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of a muscle organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of its muscle cells. Physiological hypertrophy is a normal process during development.

pigment cell development [GO_0070285]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of a pigment cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cell development does not include the steps involved in committing a cell to a pigment cell fate.

pigment cell differentiation [GO_0050931]

The process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires the specialized features of a pigmented cell, such as a melanocyte. Note that the chromatophore mentioned here is distinct from the pigment bearing structure found in certain photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. It is also different from the plant chromoplast, which is also sometimes called a chromatophore.

pigment granule [GO_0048770]

A small, subcellular membrane-bounded vesicle containing pigment and/or pigment precursor molecules. Pigment granule biogenesis is poorly understood, as pigment granules are derived from multiple sources including the endoplasmic reticulum, coated vesicles, lysosomes, and endosomes.

pigment granule localization [GO_0051875]

Any process in which a pigment granule is transported to, and/or maintained in, a specific location within the cell.

pigment granule membrane [GO_0090741]

Any membrane that is part of a pigment granule.

pigment granule organization [GO_0048753]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a pigment granule.

pigment granule transport [GO_0051904]

The directed movement of pigment granules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

pigmentation [GO_0043473]

The accumulation of pigment in an organism, tissue or cell, either by increased deposition or by increased number of cells.

plasma membrane [GO_0005886]

The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins.

plasma membrane bounded cell projection [GO_0120025]

A prolongation or process extending from a cell and that is bounded by plasma membrane, e.g. a cilium, lamellipodium, or axon.

plasma membrane bounded cell projection assembly [GO_0120031]

Formation of a prolongation or process extending and that is bounded by plasma membrane, e.g. a cilium, lamellipodium, or axon.

plasma membrane bounded cell projection cytoplasm [GO_0032838]

All of the contents of a plasma membrane bounded cell projection, excluding the plasma membrane surrounding the projection.

plasma membrane bounded cell projection morphogenesis [GO_0120039]

The process in which the anatomical structures of a plasma membrane bounded cell projection are generated and organized.

plasma membrane bounded cell projection organization [GO_0120036]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of a plasma membrane bounded prolongation or process extending from a cell, e.g. a cilium or axon.

plasma membrane fusion [GO_0045026]

The joining of the lipid bilayer membrane that surround a cell with that of another cell, producing a single cell.

plasma membrane organization [GO_0007009]

A process that is carried out at the cellular level which results in the assembly, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of the plasma membrane.

plasma membrane protein complex [GO_0098797]

Any protein complex that is part of the plasma membrane.

plasma membrane region [GO_0098590]

A membrane that is a (regional) part of the plasma membrane. Note that this term should not be used for direct manual annotation as it should always be possible to choose a more specific subclass.

polymeric cytoskeletal fiber [GO_0099513]

A component of the cytoskeleton consisting of a homo or heteropolymeric fiber constructed from an indeterminate number of protein subunits.

polysaccharide binding [GO_0030247]

Binding to a polysaccharide, a polymer of many (typically more than 10) monosaccharide residues linked glycosidically.

polysaccharide biosynthetic process [GO_0000271]

The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a polysaccharide, a polymer of many (typically more than 10) monosaccharide residues linked glycosidically.

polysaccharide localization [GO_0033037]

Any process in which a polysaccharide is transported to, or maintained in, a specific location.

polysaccharide metabolic process [GO_0005976]

The chemical reactions and pathways involving a polysaccharide, a polymer of many (typically more than 10) monosaccharide residues linked glycosidically.

polysaccharide transport [GO_0015774]

The directed movement of polysaccharides into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore. A polysaccharide is a polymer of many (typically more than 10) monosaccharide residues linked glycosidically.

pons development [GO_0021548]

The process whose specific outcome is the progression of the pons over time, from its formation to the mature structure. The pons lies above the medulla and next to the cerebellum. The pons conveys information about movement from the cerebral hemisphere to the cerebellum.

pons formation [GO_0021584]

The process that gives rise to the pons. This process pertains to the initial formation of a structure from unspecified parts. The pons lies above the medulla and next to the cerebellum. The pons conveys information about movement from the cerebral hemisphere to the cerebellum.

pons morphogenesis [GO_0021583]

The process in which the anatomical structure of the pons is generated and organized. The pons lies above the medulla and next to the cerebellum. The pons conveys information about movement from the cerebral hemisphere to the cerebellum.

positive regulation of acetylcholine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_0014057]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of acetylcholine.

positive regulation of action potential [GO_0045760]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of action potential creation, propagation or termination. This typically occurs via modulation of the activity or expression of voltage-gated ion channels.

positive regulation of adipose tissue development [GO_1904179]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of adipose tissue development.

positive regulation of amine transport [GO_0051954]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amines into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of amino acid transport [GO_0051957]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of amino acids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of androgen secretion [GO_2000836]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of androgen secretion.

positive regulation of angiogenesis [GO_0045766]

Any process that activates or increases angiogenesis.

positive regulation of animal organ morphogenesis [GO_0110110]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of animal organ morphogenesis.

positive regulation of anion transport [GO_1903793]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of anion transport.

positive regulation of aorta morphogenesis [GO_1903849]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of aorta morphogenesis.

positive regulation of aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO_1904831]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of aortic smooth muscle cell differentiation.

positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO_0043065]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell death by apoptotic process. This term should only be used when it is not possible to determine which phase or subtype of the apoptotic process is positively regulated by a gene product. Whenever detailed information is available, the more granular children terms should be used.

positive regulation of apoptotic process involved in development [GO_1904747]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic process involved in development. U4PR86 in PMID:22801495 inferred from mutant phenotype

positive regulation of apoptotic process involved in morphogenesis [GO_1902339]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic process involved in morphogenesis.

positive regulation of apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_1902258]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic process involved in outflow tract morphogenesis.

positive regulation of apoptotic signaling pathway [GO_2001235]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of apoptotic signaling pathway.

positive regulation of artery morphogenesis [GO_1905653]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of artery morphogenesis.

positive regulation of AV node cell action potential [GO_1903951]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of AV node cell action potential.

positive regulation of axo-dendritic protein transport [GO_1905128]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of axo-dendritic protein transport.

positive regulation of backward locomotion [GO_1905852]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of backward locomotion.

positive regulation of behavior [GO_0048520]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of behavior, the internally coordinated responses (actions or inactions) of whole living organisms (individuals or groups) to internal or external stimuli.

positive regulation of binding [GO_0051099]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of binding, the selective interaction of a molecule with one or more specific sites on another molecule.

positive regulation of biological process [GO_0048518]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a biological process. Biological processes are regulated by many means; examples include the control of gene expression, protein modification or interaction with a protein or substrate molecule.

positive regulation of biosynthetic process [GO_0009891]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of substances.

positive regulation of bleb assembly [GO_1904172]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of bleb assembly.

positive regulation of blood circulation [GO_1903524]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of blood circulation.

positive regulation of blood vessel branching [GO_1905555]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of blood vessel branching.

positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0110058]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of blood vessel endothelial cell differentiation.

positive regulation of bone development [GO_1903012]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of bone development.

positive regulation of branching involved in lung morphogenesis [GO_0061047]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the process in which a highly ordered sequence of patterning events generates the branched structures of the lung, consisting of reiterated combinations of bud outgrowth, elongation, and dichotomous subdivision of terminal units.

positive regulation of branching morphogenesis of a nerve [GO_1905492]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of branching morphogenesis of a nerve.

positive regulation of carbohydrate metabolic process [GO_0045913]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving carbohydrate.

positive regulation of cardiac chamber formation [GO_1901212]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac chamber formation.

positive regulation of cardiac chamber morphogenesis [GO_1901221]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac chamber morphogenesis.

positive regulation of cardiac conduction [GO_1903781]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac conduction.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle adaptation [GO_0010615]

Any process that increases the rate, extent or frequency of the process in which cardiac muscle adapts, with consequent modifications to structural and/or functional phenotypes, in response to a stimulus. Stimuli include contractile activity, loading conditions, substrate supply, and environmental factors.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_0010666]

Any process that increases the rate or extent of cardiac cell apoptotic process, a form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases whose actions dismantle a cardiac muscle cell and result in its death.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell differentiation [GO_2000727]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle cell differentiation.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell myoblast differentiation [GO_2000700]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle cell myoblast differentiation.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle cell proliferation [GO_0060045]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle cell proliferation.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle contraction [GO_0060452]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle contraction.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle fiber development [GO_0055020]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle fiber development.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy [GO_0010613]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of the enlargement or overgrowth of all or part of the heart due to an increase in size (not length) of individual cardiac muscle fibers, without cell division.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle myoblast proliferation [GO_0110024]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle myoblast proliferation.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle tissue development [GO_0055025]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle tissue development.

positive regulation of cardiac muscle tissue growth [GO_0055023]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac muscle growth.

positive regulation of cardiac myofibril assembly [GO_1905306]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac myofibril assembly.

positive regulation of cardiac ventricle development [GO_1904414]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac ventricle development.

positive regulation of cardiac ventricle formation [GO_1904944]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiac ventricle formation.

positive regulation of cardioblast differentiation [GO_0051891]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardioblast differentiation, the process in which a relatively unspecialized mesodermal cell acquires the specialized structural and/or functional features of a cardioblast. A cardioblast is a cardiac precursor cell. It is a cell that has been committed to a cardiac fate, but will undergo more cell division rather than terminally differentiating.

positive regulation of cardiocyte differentiation [GO_1905209]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cardiocyte differentiation.

positive regulation of cartilage development [GO_0061036]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of cartilage development, the process whose specific outcome is the progression of the cartilage over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cartilage is a connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulfate.

positive regulation of catabolic process [GO_0009896]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of substances.

positive regulation of catalytic activity [GO_0043085]

Any process that activates or increases the activity of an enzyme.

positive regulation of catecholamine metabolic process [GO_0045915]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving catecholamine.

positive regulation of catecholamine secretion [GO_0033605]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a catecholamine.

positive regulation of CD4 production [GO_0045224]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of CD4.

positive regulation of cell adhesion [GO_0045785]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell adhesion.

positive regulation of cell communication [GO_0010647]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell communication. Cell communication is the process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment.

positive regulation of cell cycle [GO_0045787]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of progression through the cell cycle.

positive regulation of cell cycle process [GO_0090068]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of a cellular process that is involved in the progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events.

positive regulation of cell death [GO_0010942]

Any process that increases the rate or frequency of cell death. Cell death is the specific activation or halting of processes within a cell so that its vital functions markedly cease, rather than simply deteriorating gradually over time, which culminates in cell death.

positive regulation of cell development [GO_0010720]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of the progression of the cell over time, from its formation to the mature structure. Cell development does not include the steps involved in committing a cell to a specific fate.

positive regulation of cell differentiation [GO_0045597]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell differentiation.

positive regulation of cell division [GO_0051781]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell division.

positive regulation of cell growth [GO_0030307]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, extent or direction of cell growth.

positive regulation of cell growth involved in cardiac muscle cell development [GO_0061051]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the growth of a cardiac muscle cell, where growth contributes to the progression of the cell over time from its initial formation to its mature state.

positive regulation of cell junction assembly [GO_1901890]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell junction assembly.

positive regulation of cell migration [GO_0030335]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell migration.

positive regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation [GO_0010770]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell morphogenesis contributing to cell differentiation. Cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation is the change in form (cell shape and size) that occurs when relatively unspecialized cells acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism’s life history.

positive regulation of cell motility [GO_2000147]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell motility.

positive regulation of cell population proliferation [GO_0008284]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of cell proliferation.

positive regulation of cell projection organization [GO_0031346]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cell projections.

positive regulation of cell proliferation in midbrain [GO_1904935]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell proliferation in midbrain.

positive regulation of cell proliferation involved in compound eye morphogenesis [GO_2000497]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell proliferation involved in compound eye morphogenesis.

positive regulation of cell proliferation involved in heart morphogenesis [GO_2000138]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell proliferation involved in heart morphogenesis.

positive regulation of cell proliferation involved in outflow tract morphogenesis [GO_1901964]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cell proliferation involved in outflow tract morphogenesis.

positive regulation of cellular amide metabolic process [GO_0034250]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving amides.

positive regulation of cellular amine metabolic process [GO_0033240]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving amines.

positive regulation of cellular amino acid biosynthetic process [GO_2000284]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular amino acid biosynthetic process.

positive regulation of cellular amino acid metabolic process [GO_0045764]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving amino acid.

positive regulation of cellular biosynthetic process [GO_0031328]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of substances, carried out by individual cells.

positive regulation of cellular component biogenesis [GO_0044089]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular component biogenesis, a process that results in the biosynthesis of constituent macromolecules, assembly, and arrangement of constituent parts of a cellular component.

positive regulation of cellular component movement [GO_0051272]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the movement of a cellular component.

positive regulation of cellular component organization [GO_0051130]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a process involved in the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cell structures, including the plasma membrane and any external encapsulating structures such as the cell wall and cell envelope.

positive regulation of cellular metabolic process [GO_0031325]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways by which individual cells transform chemical substances.

positive regulation of cellular process [GO_0048522]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a cellular process, any of those that are carried out at the cellular level, but are not necessarily restricted to a single cell. For example, cell communication occurs among more than one cell, but occurs at the cellular level.

positive regulation of cellular protein metabolic process [GO_0032270]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving a protein, occurring at the level of an individual cell.

positive regulation of cellular response to alcohol [GO_1905959]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to alcohol.

positive regulation of cellular response to drug [GO_2001040]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of cellular response to drug.

positive regulation of chondrocyte development [GO_1902761]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chondrocyte development.

positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation [GO_0032332]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chondrocyte differentiation.

positive regulation of chromatin assembly or disassembly [GO_0045799]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chromatin assembly or disassembly.

positive regulation of chromatin binding [GO_0035563]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of chromatin binding. Chromatin binding is the selective interaction with chromatin, the network of fibers of DNA, protein, and sometimes RNA, that make up the chromosomes of the eukaryotic nucleus during interphase.

positive regulation of chromatin organization [GO_1905269]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chromatin organization.

positive regulation of chromosome condensation [GO_1905821]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chromosome condensation.

positive regulation of chromosome organization [GO_2001252]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chromosome organization.

positive regulation of chromosome segregation [GO_0051984]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of chromosome segregation, the process in which genetic material, in the form of chromosomes, is organized and then physically separated and apportioned to two or more sets.

positive regulation of cilium assembly [GO_0045724]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the formation of a cilium.

positive regulation of circadian rhythm [GO_0042753]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of a circadian rhythm behavior.

positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, sleep [GO_0045938]

Any process that activates or increases the duration or quality of sleep, a readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity that occurs periodically in many animals.

positive regulation of collagen binding [GO_0033343]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of collagen binding.

positive regulation of collagen biosynthetic process [GO_0032967]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of collagen, any of a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals.

positive regulation of collagen fibril organization [GO_1904028]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of collagen fibril organization.

positive regulation of collagen metabolic process [GO_0010714]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the metabolism of collagen, any of a group of fibrous proteins of very high tensile strength that form the main component of connective tissue in animals.

positive regulation of compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation [GO_0110117]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of compound eye photoreceptor cell differentiation.

positive regulation of compound eye retinal cell apoptotic process [GO_1901694]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of compound eye retinal cell apoptotic process.

positive regulation of compound eye retinal cell programmed cell death [GO_0046672]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of programmed cell death that occurs in the compound eye retina.

positive regulation of cytokinesis [GO_0032467]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the division of the cytoplasm of a cell, and its separation into two daughter cells.

positive regulation of cytoskeleton organization [GO_0051495]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the formation, arrangement of constituent parts, or disassembly of cytoskeletal structures.

positive regulation of dermatome development [GO_0061184]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the progression of the dermatome over time, from its initial formation to the mature structure. The dermatome is the portion of a somite that will form skin.

positive regulation of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch [GO_1905789]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception of touch.

positive regulation of developmental growth [GO_0048639]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of developmental growth.

positive regulation of developmental pigmentation [GO_0048087]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the developmental process that results in the deposition of coloring matter in an organism.

positive regulation of developmental process [GO_0051094]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of development, the biological process whose specific outcome is the progression of an organism over time from an initial condition (e.g. a zygote, or a young adult) to a later condition (e.g. a multicellular animal or an aged adult).

positive regulation of digestive system process [GO_0060456]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of a digestive system process, a physical, chemical, or biochemical process carried out by living organisms to break down ingested nutrients into components that may be easily absorbed and directed into metabolism.

positive regulation of DNA binding [GO_0043388]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of DNA binding. DNA binding is any process in which a gene product interacts selectively with DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

positive regulation of DNA biosynthetic process [GO_2000573]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of DNA biosynthetic process.

positive regulation of DNA metabolic process [GO_0051054]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving DNA.

positive regulation of DNA repair [GO_0045739]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of DNA repair.

positive regulation of dopamine secretion [GO_0033603]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of dopamine.

positive regulation of eclosion [GO_0045805]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of eclosion.

positive regulation of ectoderm development [GO_2000385]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of ectoderm development.

positive regulation of embryonic camera-type eye development [GO_1902865]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of embryonic camera-type eye development.

positive regulation of embryonic development [GO_0040019]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of embryonic development.

positive regulation of endodermal cell differentiation [GO_1903226]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of endodermal cell differentiation.

positive regulation of endothelial cell apoptotic process [GO_2000353]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell apoptotic process.

positive regulation of endothelial cell development [GO_1901552]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell development.

positive regulation of endothelial cell differentiation [GO_0045603]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial cell differentiation.

positive regulation of endothelial cell proliferation [GO_0001938]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of endothelial cell proliferation.

positive regulation of endothelial tube morphogenesis [GO_1905956]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of endothelial tube morphogenesis.

positive regulation of entry into reproductive diapause [GO_0061965]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of the dormancy process that results in entry into reproductive diapause. Reproductive diapause is a form of diapause where the organism itself will remain fully active, including feeding and other routine activities, but the reproductive organs experience a tissue-specific reduction in metabolism, with characteristic triggering and releasing stimuli.

positive regulation of epidermal cell differentiation [GO_0045606]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epidermal cell differentiation.

positive regulation of epidermis development [GO_0045684]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epidermis development.

positive regulation of epithelial cell apoptotic process [GO_1904037]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial cell apoptotic process.

positive regulation of epithelial cell differentiation [GO_0030858]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial cell differentiation.

positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation [GO_0050679]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of epithelial cell proliferation.

positive regulation of epithelial cell proliferation involved in lung morphogenesis [GO_0060501]

Any process that increases the rate or frequency of epithelial cell proliferation that results in the lung attaining its shape.

positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition [GO_0010718]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is where an epithelial cell loses apical/basolateral polarity, severs intercellular adhesive junctions, degrades basement membrane components and becomes a migratory mesenchymal cell.

positive regulation of epithelial tube formation [GO_1905278]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of epithelial tube formation. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

positive regulation of erythrocyte apoptotic process [GO_1902252]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of erythrocyte apoptotic process.

positive regulation of erythrocyte differentiation [GO_0045648]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of erythrocyte differentiation.

positive regulation of establishment of protein localization [GO_1904951]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of establishment of protein localization.

positive regulation of execution phase of apoptosis [GO_1900119]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of execution phase of apoptosis.

positive regulation of exocytosis [GO_0045921]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of exocytosis.

positive regulation of exosomal secretion [GO_1903543]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of exosomal secretion.

positive regulation of extracellular exosome assembly [GO_1903553]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of extracellular vesicular exosome assembly.

positive regulation of extracellular matrix assembly [GO_1901203]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of extracellular matrix assembly.

positive regulation of extracellular matrix disassembly [GO_0090091]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of extracellular matrix disassembly. Extracellular matrix disassembly is a process that results in the breakdown of the extracellular matrix.

positive regulation of extracellular matrix organization [GO_1903055]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of extracellular matrix organization.

positive regulation of eye photoreceptor cell development [GO_0042479]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of eye photoreceptor development.

positive regulation of fat cell apoptotic process [GO_1904651]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of fat cell apoptotic process.

positive regulation of fat cell differentiation [GO_0045600]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of adipocyte differentiation.

positive regulation of fat cell proliferation [GO_0070346]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of fat cell proliferation.

positive regulation of feeding behavior [GO_2000253]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of feeding behavior.

positive regulation of female gonad development [GO_2000196]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of female gonad development.

positive regulation of fibroblast apoptotic process [GO_2000271]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of fibroblast apoptotic process.

positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation [GO_0048146]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of multiplication or reproduction of fibroblast cells.

positive regulation of formation of translation initiation ternary complex [GO_1901192]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of formation of translation initiation ternary complex.

positive regulation of forward locomotion [GO_1905850]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of forward locomotion.

positive regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway [GO_0045745]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway activity.

positive regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion [GO_0014054]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of gamma-aminobutyric acid.

positive regulation of gastric acid secretion [GO_0060454]

Any process that increases the rate frequency or extent of gastric secretion. Gastric secretion is the regulated release of gastric acid (hydrochloric acid) by parietal or oxyntic cells during digestion.

positive regulation of gastric mucosal blood circulation [GO_1904346]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of gastric mucosal blood circulation.

positive regulation of gastrulation [GO_2000543]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of gastrulation.

positive regulation of gene expression [GO_0010628]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of gene expression. Gene expression is the process in which a gene’s coding sequence is converted into a mature gene product (protein or RNA).

positive regulation of germ cell proliferation [GO_1905938]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of germ cell proliferation.

positive regulation of glial cell apoptotic process [GO_0034352]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of glial cell apoptotic process.

positive regulation of glial cell differentiation [GO_0045687]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glia cell differentiation.

positive regulation of glial cell proliferation [GO_0060252]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of glial cell proliferation.

positive regulation of gliogenesis [GO_0014015]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of gliogenesis, the formation of mature glia.

positive regulation of glucagon secretion [GO_0070094]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of glucagon.

positive regulation of glutamate secretion [GO_0014049]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the controlled release of glutamate.

positive regulation of glutamate secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1903296]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glutamate secretion, where glutamate acts as a neurotransmitter. An example of this is Rab3gap1 in mouse (Q80UJ7) in PMID:16782817 inferred from mutant phenotype

positive regulation of glycine secretion, neurotransmission [GO_1904626]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glycine secretion, neurotransmission.

positive regulation of glycoprotein biosynthetic process [GO_0010560]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency, or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a glycoprotein, a protein that contains covalently bound glycose (i.e. monosaccharide) residues; the glycose occurs most commonly as oligosaccharide or fairly small polysaccharide but occasionally as monosaccharide.

positive regulation of glycoprotein metabolic process [GO_1903020]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of glycoprotein metabolic process. human serum amyloid P component (SAP) P02743 inhibits viral neuraminidase, NA (exo-alpha-sialidase activity) and thus the metabolism of glycoproteins, demonstrated in Figure 4A PMID:23544079, (IDA), the negative regulation term would be applied to this protein

positive regulation of Golgi to plasma membrane protein transport [GO_0042998]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the transport of proteins from the Golgi to the plasma membrane.

positive regulation of gonad development [GO_1905941]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of gonad development.

positive regulation of growth [GO_0045927]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of growth, the increase in size or mass of all or part of an organism.

positive regulation of heart contraction [GO_0045823]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of heart contraction.

positive regulation of heart growth [GO_0060421]

Any process that increases the rate or extent of heart growth. Heart growth is the increase in size or mass of the heart.

positive regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation [GO_1901534]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation.

positive regulation of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation [GO_1902038]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation.

positive regulation of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation [GO_1902035]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation.

positive regulation of hemopoiesis [GO_1903708]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of hemopoiesis. An example of this is Atg7 in mouse (UniProt symbol, Q9D906) in PMID:20080761, inferred from mutant phenotype.

positive regulation of heterochromatin assembly [GO_0031453]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of heterochromatin formation.

positive regulation of heterochromatin organization [GO_0120263]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of heterochromatin organization.

positive regulation of hormone secretion [GO_0046887]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the regulated release of a hormone from a cell.

positive regulation of hyaluronan biosynthetic process [GO_1900127]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of hyaluronan biosynthetic process.

positive regulation of immune effector process [GO_0002699]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune effector process.

positive regulation of immune response [GO_0050778]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the immune response, the immunological reaction of an organism to an immunogenic stimulus.

positive regulation of immune system process [GO_0002684]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of an immune system process.

positive regulation of intestinal absorption [GO_1904480]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of intestinal absorption.

positive regulation of intracellular lipid transport [GO_0032379]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of lipids within cells.

positive regulation of intracellular protein transport [GO_0090316]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of proteins within cells.

positive regulation of intracellular signal transduction [GO_1902533]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of intracellular signal transduction.

positive regulation of intracellular transport [GO_0032388]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of substances within cells.

positive regulation of ion transport [GO_0043270]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of charged atoms or small charged molecules into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of kinase activity [GO_0033674]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of kinase activity, the catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule.

positive regulation of leukocyte apoptotic process [GO_2000108]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of leukocyte apoptotic process.

positive regulation of leukocyte differentiation [GO_1902107]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of leukocyte differentiation.

positive regulation of leukocyte mediated immunity [GO_0002705]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of leukocyte mediated immunity.

positive regulation of leukocyte proliferation [GO_0070665]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of leukocyte proliferation.

positive regulation of ligase activity [GO_0051351]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of ligase activity, the catalysis of the ligation of two substances with concomitant breaking of a diphosphate linkage, usually in a nucleoside triphosphate.

positive regulation of lipid binding [GO_1900132]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of lipid binding.

positive regulation of lipid biosynthetic process [GO_0046889]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of lipids.

positive regulation of lipid catabolic process [GO_0050996]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of lipids.

positive regulation of lipid localization [GO_1905954]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of lipid localization.

positive regulation of lipid metabolic process [GO_0045834]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving lipids.

positive regulation of lipid storage [GO_0010884]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of lipid storage. Lipid storage is the accumulation and maintenance in cells or tissues of lipids, compounds soluble in organic solvents but insoluble or sparingly soluble in aqueous solvents. Lipid reserves can be accumulated during early developmental stages for mobilization and utilization at later stages of development.

positive regulation of lipid transport [GO_0032370]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the directed movement of lipids into, out of or within a cell, or between cells, by means of some agent such as a transporter or pore.

positive regulation of locomotion [GO_0040017]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of locomotion of a cell or organism.

positive regulation of locomotion involved in locomotory behavior [GO_0090326]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate, or extent of the self-propelled movement of a cell or organism from one location to another in a behavioral context; the aspect of locomotory behavior having to do with movement.

positive regulation of locomotor rhythm [GO_1904061]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of locomotor rhythm.

positive regulation of lung ciliated cell differentiation [GO_1901248]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of lung ciliated cell differentiation.

positive regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic process [GO_0010557]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the formation of a macromolecule, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process [GO_0010604]

Any process that increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways involving macromolecules, any molecule of high relative molecular mass, the structure of which essentially comprises the multiple repetition of units derived, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass.

positive regulation of male mating behavior [GO_1902437]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of male mating behavior.

positive regulation of megakaryocyte differentiation [GO_0045654]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of megakaryocyte differentiation.

positive regulation of meiotic cell cycle [GO_0051446]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of progression through the meiotic cell cycle.

positive regulation of meiotic nuclear division [GO_0045836]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of meiosis.

positive regulation of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process [GO_2001055]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mesenchymal cell apoptotic process.

positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation [GO_0002053]

The process of activating or increasing the rate or extent of mesenchymal cell proliferation. Mesenchymal cells are loosely organized embryonic cells.

positive regulation of mesenchymal cell proliferation involved in lung development [GO_2000792]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mesenchymal cell proliferation involved in lung development.

positive regulation of mesoderm development [GO_2000382]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm development.

positive regulation of mesoderm formation [GO_1905904]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mesoderm formation.

positive regulation of mesodermal cell differentiation [GO_1905772]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mesodermal cell differentiation.

positive regulation of metabolic process [GO_0009893]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of the chemical reactions and pathways within a cell or an organism.

positive regulation of microtubule binding [GO_1904528]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule binding.

positive regulation of microtubule depolymerization [GO_0031117]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule depolymerization.

positive regulation of microtubule nucleation [GO_0090063]

Any process that increases the rate, frequency or extent of microtubule nucleation. Microtubule nucleation is the ‘de novo’ formation of a microtubule, in which tubulin heterodimers form metastable oligomeric aggregates, some of which go on to support formation of a complete microtubule. Microtubule nucleation usually occurs from a specific site within a cell.

positive regulation of microtubule polymerization [GO_0031116]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule polymerization.

positive regulation of microtubule polymerization or depolymerization [GO_0031112]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of microtubule polymerization or depolymerization.

positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle [GO_0045931]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of progression through the mitotic cell cycle.

positive regulation of mitotic cell cycle, embryonic [GO_0045977]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of progression through the embryonic mitotic cell cycle.

positive regulation of mitotic chromosome condensation [GO_1903380]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mitotic chromosome condensation.

positive regulation of mitotic nuclear division [GO_0045840]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mitosis.

positive regulation of mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly [GO_1905559]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mitotic nuclear envelope disassembly.

positive regulation of mitotic sister chromatid segregation [GO_0062033]

Any process that starts or increases the frequency, rate or extent of sister chromatid segregation during mitosis.

positive regulation of molecular function [GO_0044093]

Any process that activates or increases the rate or extent of a molecular function, an elemental biological activity occurring at the molecular level, such as catalysis or binding.

positive regulation of mononuclear cell proliferation [GO_0032946]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of mononuclear cell proliferation.

positive regulation of morphogenesis of an epithelium [GO_1905332]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of morphogenesis of an epithelium. An example of this is MMRN2 in human (Q9H8L6) in PMID:25745997 (inferred from direct assay).

positive regulation of motor neuron apoptotic process [GO_2000673]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of motor neuron apoptotic process.

positive regulation of multicellular organism growth [GO_0040018]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of growth of an organism to reach its usual body size.

positive regulation of multicellular organismal process [GO_0051240]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of an organismal process, any of the processes pertinent to the function of an organism above the cellular level; includes the integrated processes of tissues and organs.

positive regulation of muscle adaptation [GO_0014744]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle adaptation.

positive regulation of muscle cell apoptotic process [GO_0010661]

Any process that increases the rate or frequency of muscle cell apoptotic process, a form of programmed cell death induced by external or internal signals that trigger the activity of proteolytic caspases whose actions dismantle a muscle cell and result in its death.

positive regulation of muscle cell differentiation [GO_0051149]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle cell differentiation.

positive regulation of muscle contraction [GO_0045933]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle contraction.

positive regulation of muscle hypertrophy [GO_0014742]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle hypertrophy.

positive regulation of muscle organ development [GO_0048636]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the rate of muscle development.

positive regulation of muscle tissue development [GO_1901863]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of muscle tissue development.

positive regulation of myeloid cell apoptotic process [GO_0033034]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of myeloid cell apoptotic process.

positive regulation of myeloid cell differentiation [GO_0045639]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myeloid cell differentiation.

positive regulation of myeloid leukocyte differentiation [GO_0002763]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of myeloid leukocyte differentiation.

positive regulation of myeloid leukocyte mediated immunity [GO_0002888]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate, or extent of myeloid leukocyte mediated immunity.

positive regulation of myeloid progenitor cell differentiation [GO_1905455]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myeloid progenitor cell differentiation.

positive regulation of myoblast differentiation [GO_0045663]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast differentiation. A myoblast is a mononucleate cell type that, by fusion with other myoblasts, gives rise to the myotubes that eventually develop into skeletal muscle fibers.

positive regulation of myoblast proliferation [GO_2000288]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myoblast proliferation.

positive regulation of myotome development [GO_2000287]

Any process that activates or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myotome development.

positive regulation of myotube differentiation [GO_0010831]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of myotube differentiation. Myotube differentiation is the process in which a relatively unspecialized cell acquires specialized features of a myotube cell. Myotubes are multinucleated cells that are formed when proliferating myoblasts exit the cell cycle, differentiate and fuse.

positive regulation of nervous system development [GO_0051962]

Any process that activates, maintains or increases the frequency, rate or extent of nervous system development, the origin and formation of nervous tissue.